Many low and middle-income communities still lack affordable and scalable solutions for their priority health needs. We are aiming to improve generation of new ideas and technological innovation by early-career researchers in Africa, specifically in the health sector. As a step in the process, we wish to conduct an analysis of expert opinion on best strategies for encouraging these early-career scientists so that they can better identify priority health problems in their communities, and generate new ideas to address these problems.
Selenium is an essential trace element in human health and disease. It is currently a subject of intense interest and appears to play a key role in malaria. Selenium has important health effects related to the immune response. It appears to be a key nutrient in counteracting the development of virulence and inhibiting HIV progression to AIDS. In the context of health effects, low selenium status in some parts of the world, notably in Africa, is giving cause for concern.
Selenium and immunity
We've had a good start to the new year here at the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group (https://cidg.cochrane.org/), with one new Cochrane Review and one new Cochrane Protocol published, which may be of interest to Malaria World members.
2015, Issue 1 (Cochrane Reviews and Protocols published 1 to 31 January 2015):
New Cochrane Review: Intermittent preventive antimalarial treatment for children with anaemia (Athuman M, Kabanywanyi AM, Rohwer AC)
The association ACECI in Burundi (www.aceci.org) has developed a mosquito repellent based on Nepeta cataria (catmint in english, cataire en français, Katzenminze auf deutsch). The study by local students in medicine in collaboration with Montreal’s Ecole Polytechnique together with the Government of Burundi showed that catnip oil reduced the number of bites from mosquitoes by 91.7%. The trial involved 60 volunteers.
Over the years IFBV-BELHERB accumulated puzzling data concerning Artemisia annua grown on the Bamileke plateau in Cameroon.
Among all the clinical trials we have run in several countries, the infusion from Cameroon gave probably the best results (Rosine Chougouo et al, Proceedings MIM Conf, Nairobi, Kenya, 2 Nov 2009, no 312). The results of the comparative study showed a significantly higher sensistivity for the Artemisia annua concoction (0% late therapeutic failure), much better than 12.5 % for artesunate and 14.3% for artesunate-amodiaquine.
Many anecdotical or scientific results indicate that leaves and stems of Artemisia annua have different therapeutical properties, often higher for leaves, sometimes lower.
Our efforts so far to elucidate key factors explaining these differences have failed. Artemisinin, polyphenols, essential oils are higher in leaves, scopoletin sometimes lower. If the therapeutical properties against malaria, bacteria or nematodes, really are proportional to the concentration of these organic key constituants the healing power of stems should be close to zero.
I have written on this topic sometimes ago. My present research on dams and malaria in Africa triggered me to invoke some more thoughts. Several dams are under construction in sub-Saharan Africa. According to FAO database, some 118 dams are currently under construction while several more are planned. My analysis indicated that over half (57%) of these dams are located in areas with unstable/seasonal malaria. Previous studies indicated that dams in unstable semi-arid areas intensify malaria transmission.
Following the recommandations in the WHO Tradtional Medicine 2014-2023 document published in Decembrer 2013 in several African countries Centers for Traditional Medicine are stepping up their activities
- Centre de Médecine Traditionnelle de Buta, abbé Léopold Mvukiye
- Homeopharma, Institut de Soins Naturels, Madagascar
- Centre de Médecine Tradtionnelle du Mali (Bandiaraga)
- In the Gambia the National Agricultural Research Institute
- Département de Médecine, INRS, Bamako, Mali
- In Uganda the Ministry of Health and the University of Makerere
submitted by Lucile Cornet-Vernet and Pierre Lutgen
The competitive product Artequick which the Chinese launched against Coartem and Coarsucam is now confronted by resistance like any other monotherapy. A letter to the editor by DL Saunders et al., in NEJM July 2014 describes the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failure in Cambodia. The drug was adopted as first line treatment in this country in 2010. Three years later the efficacy has decreased from 92% to 64%. At 72 hours 56% of patients still had persistent parasitemia. A disaster for Cambodia now, but a genocide looming for African countries, after the failure of other ACTs.
Although 80% of malaria occurs in children under five years of age, infants under six months of age are known to have low rates of infection and disease. It is not clear why this youngest age group is protected. The perception that malaria is uncommon in young infants has resulted in the paucity of information currently available and the lack of evidence-based treatment guidelines in this population, Many children are dying before malaria is diagnosed and the death toll for infants under aged under six months is estimated at 200 000 – 300 000 annual casualties.
Artemisia annua has strong allelopathic properties as was documented by Mediplant for the high artemisinin hybrid. In other words the plant becomes invasive and inhibits the growth of other plants or cash crop on fields where Artemisia has been planted for the extraction of artemisinin by Bigpharma.
With WHO's blessing Keasling's synthetic artemisinin replaces the natural product: an economical disaster for African families who have invested all their meager resources in Artemisia annua plantations, lured by the promise of big profits.
As this year is the centenary of the start of World War 1, perhaps readers may be interested to see how malaria may have changed the outcome of the war had the Turkish army managed to hang on after the last battle in 1918, as the British Army collapsed from malaria two weeks after that battle. See http://www.eradication-of-malaria.com/ww1-malaria.html This may be used to serve as a reminder to those who choose to ignore the disease and treat it casually.
Osana is a small, all natural anti mosquito soap. You simply wash with this bar of soap to keep mosqito away.
We are passionate about providing a non toxic solution to protect people naturally, as well as creating a sustainable product with no negative side effects.
Constant Tchandema and Pierre Lutgen
Potassium, the most abundant cation in the human body, regulates intracellular enzyme function and neuromuscular tissue excitability. Serum potassium is normally maintained within thenarrow range of 3.5 to 5.5 mEq/L.
Several recently published Cochrane Reviews from the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group may of interest to Malaria World members:
Artemether for severe malaria (new review) http://ow.ly/CEOQi
Drugs for preventing malaria in pregnant women in endemic areas: any drug regimen versus placebo or no treatment (updated review) http://ow.ly/CEPri
A very important paper posted on www.malariaworld.org (Enabling factors facilitating the use of neem-based remedies for the management of malaria … ).
An apotheosis of herbal medicine
It documents in an excellent way the superiority of herbal medicine against malaria when compared with ACTs.
“The years teach much that the days never knew” (Unknown source)
In the 1970s, there were only about nine countries where dengue fever existed but now the number is closer to 60. As of 2010 dengue fever is believed to infect 50 to 100 million people worldwide per year with 1/2 million life-threatening infections There is no cure and no real treatment.
I am pleased to see that Pedro will take over the hard task that Rob Newman left. Rob was instrumental in bringing the Global Malaria Programme back to life, and now I would like to see it expand its influence. When one looks at the various malaria control operations in various countries and read the various blogs etc, it is apparent that there is a lack of coordination, and in most instances there are several agencies, donors, major players and national personalities operating.
About two years ago i met a friend who introduced me to the Bahai Faith, before then i had been a dormant Presbytarian. The ideals of the Bahai Faith have had so much impact in my life as a person. Anyhoo i came across this article, thought i would share it with you all.
At the 15th International Workshop on Clinical Pharmacology of HIV on May 19, 2014 at the University of Nebraska, FA Fehintola showed that nevirapine co-prescribed with artemether-lumefantrine may reduce the artemether concentration in blood by 70%.
A document in Scientific American (June 2014) describes the activities of MVV Medecines for Malaria Ventures, a « non profit » organization (association sans but lucratif) located at Geneva. It is surprising to learn that they sell Artesunate in monotherapy for intravenous injection at high doses ; in cooperation with WHO and Médecins sans Frontières.
Dear friends & colleagues,
I am extremely honoured, proud, and happy to announce that I have been awarded a prestigious Vidi grant from the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) to start my own independent malaria research lab in Nijmegen. Below follows a press release providing further details.
Why is there so little blogging about malaria from a local perspective? Those who live in regions of endemic malaria are not writing about it. As a result, it is hard to follow progress in combating malaria in a particular region. For example, I have an interest in malaria in western Kenya. However, it is difficult to know what programs are in place there, who is involved, what progress has been made. I am willing to bet that there is not a single blog anywhere where people living in an endemic region talk about malaria.
------------- Enquête sur le diagnostic du neuropaludisme--------------------
Nous sommes un groupe de médecins de l'université Duke aux États-Unis et de l'Université de Liverpool au Royaume-Uni. Notre objectif étant de mieux comprendre comment les médecins parviennent à poser un diagnostic de neuropaludisme, nous avons réalisé une enquête à ce sujet.
A group of French tourists, while crossing Africa by car, noticed that those drinking Artemisia annua tea where less attacked by the fierce mosquitoes of this continent than those relying on the standard pharmaceutical pills.
Wherever malaria has been eliminated, success was likely to have been based on the interplay of a series of mechanisms. In the United States it may have coincided with the advent of residual insecticides, but there were a variety of factors associated with the success. These were seasonal changes, environmental factors, political decisions that affected where people could live, the advent of improved treatments and increase in wealth and improvement of living standards. The same can be said of Italy and much of Europe in the early part of the 20th Century.