To test the assumption that reductions in malaria in Africa will increase economic productivity, a correlation-regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact ofexpenditures by the US President’s Malaria Initiative for Africa (PMI), and increases in the economic productivity of countries included in the PMI. For the 12 most representative countries the per capita expenditures for malaria suppression in the 2011 budget of the PMI were compared with observed increases in per capita economic productivity. The measure of economic productivity used was the per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period 2007 to 2011. With a mean annual expenditure for suppressing malaria slightly above 1 US dollar per capita (range 0.44-3.40), there was a positive but weak correlation of higher expenditures with increased economic productivity. The correlation coefficient r was 0.5. The increase in per capita GDP in these countries over the 4-year period varied between 60 and 200 USD. The slope of the regression line and thus the ratio of benefits to cost from this programme varied slightly between ecologic zones, but the mean was 6.75 to 1. This meant that there was an increase in per capita GDP of $6.75 for every $1 invested per capita in suppressing malaria. The high benefits to cost ratio from the PMI makes suppression of malaria by methods used by the initiative potentially an attractive investment, at least for the near future while the biocides and drugs deployed are still effective.
A population-level approach was used to yield a better estimate of the probability of a new infection versus relapse or recrudescence of homologous hypnozoites; hypnozoite activation was common for this cohort.
Oxidative damage is one of the most important pathological consequences of malarial infections.
Since 1960, a total of seven species of monkey malaria have been reported as transmissible to man by mosquito bite:
The study provides evidence that there was an increased risk of eye disorders in users of all anti-malarials compared to non-users of anti-malarials.
The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of these activities on the self-implemented preventive measures against malaria by the ex-patients of the microscopists.
This review attempts to summarise our limited current knowledge on the signalling mechanisms involved in the transition from asexual replication to sexual differentiation and reproduction, with a brief mention to the effects of current treatments on the sexual stages and to some of the difficulties inherent in developing pharmacological interventions to curtail disease transmission.
In the present work, we evaluated the capability of Plasmodium falciparum proteases to hydrolyze the multifunctional protein plasminogen, which is implicated in angiogenesis and coagulation processes by the generation of angiostatin and plasmin, respectively.
A debated alternative role in remodeling host ion composition for the benefit of the parasite appears to be nonessential. Because both channel activity and the associated clag3 genes are strictly conserved in malaria parasites, channel-mediated permeability is an attractive target for development of new therapies.
This study aims to research two areas, one with a resistant and the other with a susceptible profile of An. gambiae to deltamethrin in the region of Plateau (southern Benin). In each area, eight localities were sought.