In the present study, only An. introlatus was positive for oocysts. Kernel Density analysis showed that P. knowlesi hotspot areas overlapped with areas where the infected An. introlatus was discovered. This further strengthens the hypothesis that An. introlatusis is the vector for P. knowlesi in the Hulu Selangor district.
Blockade of neutrophil elastase emerges as a novel antihemostatic mechanism in hematophagy; it also supports the notion that neutrophils and the innate immune response are targets for antithrombotic therapy.
Malaria parasites have been shown to adjust their life history traits to changing environmental conditions.
Co-infection with S. haematobium and P. falciparum is significantly associated with reduced risk of febrile malaria in long-term asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum.
There was high coverage of LLINs in the study area with regular use of LLINs throughout the year.
Pregnancy triggers immunological changes aimed to tolerate the fetus, but its impact on B lymphocytes is poorly understood.
Current methods of delivering ITNs, i.e., one mass campaign every five years and regular distribution of ITNs from health center can barely maintain the current effective coverage.
A single population of An. stephensi could be classified by WHO criteria as susceptible or resistant to a given chemical, depending on the temperature at which the mosquitoes were exposed.
Therefore, malaria represents a key selection pressure for the human MHC and has left clear evolutionary footprints on both the frequencies and the number of alleles observed in different countries.
Living with non-biological parents, high number of under-fives in household, and long distance to the nearest health facility were important factors for delay in seeking healthcare.