Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum kills nearly one million children each year and imposes crippling economic burdens on families and nations worldwide.
Chemical investigation of the organic extract obtained from the sponge Plakortis simplex collected in the South China Sea afforded five new polyketide endoperoxides (2 and 4–7), along with two known analogues (1 and 3).
The results indicate the continuing role of An. arabiensis and the increasing importance of An. funestus in malaria transmission, and pyrethroid resistance development in both species.
Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions can reduce malaria transmission by targeting mosquitoes when they feed upon sleeping humans and/or rest inside houses, livestock shelters or other man-made structures.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium goes through two life stages in the human host, a non-symptomatic liver stage (LS) followed by a blood stage with all clinical manifestation of the disease.
Compounds 7–10 displayed potency without any apparent toxicity
Mosquitoes possess an innate immune system that is capable of limiting infection by a variety of pathogens, including the Plasmodium spp. parasites responsible for human malaria.
The additive and multiplicative models were validated and were shown to be robust and with high climate-based, early epidemic predictive power.
The changes to the treatment guidelines appear to result in a declining trend as was observed between 2006 and 2008.