Pharmaceutical monotherapies against human malaria have proven effective, although ephemeral, owing to the inevitable evolution of resistant parasites.
Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is a highly intricate process in which Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 5 (PfRH5) is an indispensable parasite ligand that binds with its erythrocyte receptor, Basigin.
Emerging resistance to antimalarial agents raises the need for new drugs.
Limited information is available on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) parameters driving the efficacy of antimalarial drugs.
Current antimalarials are under continuous threat due to the relentless development of drug resistance by malaria parasites.
Chloroquine-primaquine (CQ-PQ) continues to be the frontline therapy for radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria.
Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly agent of malaria, displays a wide variety of resistance mechanisms in the field.
The invasive and motile life stages of malaria parasites (merozoite, ookinete and sporozoite) possess a distinctive cortical structure termed the pellicle.
Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases.
We advocate that development of an optimally efficacious malaria vaccine will need to improve on nature, and that this can be accomplished by rational vaccine design facilitated by mining genomic, proteomic and transcriptomic datasets in the context of relevant biological function.