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One-step PCR: A novel protocol for determination of pfhrp2 deletion status in Plasmodium falciparum

July 27, 2020 - 12:21 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jones S, Subramaniam G, Plucinski MM, Patel D, Padilla J, Aidoo M, Talundzic E
Reference: 
PLoS ONE 15(7): e0236369

Histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detecting rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have played an important role in enabling prompt malaria diagnosis in remote locations. However, emergence of pfhrp2 deleted parasites is threatening the efficacy of RDTs, and the World Health Organization (WHO) has highlighted surveillance of these deletions as a priority. Nested PCR is used to confirm pfhrp2 deletion but is costly and laborious.

High insecticide resistances levels in Anopheles gambiaes s.l. in northern Uganda and its relevance for future malaria control

July 26, 2020 - 13:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Echodu R, Iga J, Oyet WS, Mireji P, Anena J, Onanyang D, Iwiru T, Lutwama JJ, Opiyo EA
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 22;13(1):348

The aim of the study was to determine the level of insecticide resistance and diversity in Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Uganda. Standard WHO insecticide susceptibility test assays were used to test for susceptibility to 0.5% malathion, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.75% permethrin on 3–5 day old generation one progeny. We also screened for species diversity and knockdown resistance using PCR assay.

Evolution of insecticide resistance and its mechanisms in Anopheles stephensi in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region

July 20, 2020 - 15:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ahmadali Enayati, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Morteza Zaim and Janet Hemingway
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:258, 17 July 2020

While Iran is on the path to eliminating malaria, the disease with 4.9 million estimated cases and 9300 estimated deaths in 2018 remains a serious health problem in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region. Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Iran and its range extends from Iraq to western China. Recently, the vector invaded new territories in Sri Lanka and countries in the Horn of Africa. Insecticide resistance in An. stephensi is a potential issue in controlling the spread of this vector.

NOT Open Access | Malaria in HIV-infected patients in a nonendemic setting

July 15, 2020 - 14:20 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Lam E, Hites M, Cantinieaux B, Van Laethem Y, De Wit S, Martin C
Reference: 
AIDS. 2020 Jul 15; 34(9):1359-1365

The impact of HIV infection on malaria is unclear in nonendemic areas. In endemic territories, HIV has been reported to be a risk factor for higher morbidity. Nowadays, as HIV-infected patients travel more, it is important to assess the impact of HIV at the individual level on imported malaria.

Indoor spraying with chlorfenapyr (a pyrrole insecticide) provides residual control of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in southern Benin

July 14, 2020 - 09:47 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Corine Ngufor, Augustin Fongnikin, Neil Hobbs, Martial Gbegbo, Laurette Kiki, Abibath Odjo, Martin Akogbeto and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:249, 13 July 2020

New classes of insecticides with novel modes of action, which can provide effective and prolonged control of insecticide-resistant malaria vector populations, are urgently needed for indoor residual spraying. Such insecticides can be included in a rotation plan to manage and prevent further development of resistance in mosquito vectors of malaria. Chlorfenapyr, a novel pyrrole insecticide with a unique mode of action, is being developed as a long-lasting IRS formulation.

Parasite density in severe malaria in Colombia

June 26, 2020 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Padilla-Rodríguez JC, Olivera MJ, Guevara-García BD
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Jun 23;15(6):e0235119

Colombia has officially adopted the parasite density levels of severe malaria established by the WHO (>50,000 parasites/μl). These values have been inferred from areas of high transmission in Africa and are not consistent with the dynamics of low and unstable transmission in Colombia. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the parasite density values observed in patients with severe malaria and their distribution in the different ecoepidemiological regions of Colombia.

NOT Open Access | Oral-maxillofacial adverse events related to antimalarials

June 8, 2020 - 15:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Shuai Y, Wang J, Jiang H, Yu Y, Jin L
Reference: 
Oral Dis. 2020 Jun 4

Malaria is a worldwide parasitic disease, which affects millions of lives every year. Various medications are recommended by WHO for prevention and treatment of malaria. However, adverse events caused by antimalarials were frequently reported, some of which were severe and fatal.

Prevalence and risk factors related to poor outcome of patients with severe Plasmodium vivax infection: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and analysis of case reports

May 25, 2020 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kotepui M, Kotepui KU, Milanez GJ, Masangkay FR
Reference: 
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 24; 20(1):363

Plasmodium vivax rarely develops severe complications when compared to severe falciparum malaria. However, severe vivax malaria also needs urgent, intensive care and treatment as severe falciparum malaria. This systematic review aimed to explore pooled prevalence of severe vivax malaria and to identify factors related to poor outcome of patients who developed severe manifestation.

Covid-19: Keep essential malaria services going during pandemic, urges WHO

April 27, 2020 - 13:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Thornton J
Reference: 
BMJ. 2020 Apr 23;369:m1637.

Deaths from malaria in sub-Saharan Africa could return to levels last seen 20 years ago because of severe disruptions in access to nets and medicines during the covid-19 pandemic, a new modelling analysis has shown.

WHO malaria nucleic acid amplification test external quality assessment scheme: results of distribution programmes one to three

March 31, 2020 - 15:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Jane A. Cunningham, Rebecca M. Thomson, Jaya Shrivastava, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:129, 30 March 2020

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends parasite-based diagnosis of malaria. In recent years, there has been surge in the use of various kinds of nucleic-acid amplification based tests (NAATs) for detection and identification of Plasmodium spp. to support clinical care in high-resource settings and clinical and epidemiological research worldwide. However, these tests are not without challenges, including lack (or limited use) of standards and lack of reproducibility, due in part to variation in protocols amongst laboratories. Therefore, there is a need for rigorous quality control, including a robust external quality assessment (EQA) scheme targeted towards malaria NAATs. To this effect, the WHO Global Malaria Programme worked with the UK National External Quality Assessment Scheme (UK NEQAS) Parasitology and with technical experts to launch a global NAAT EQA scheme in January 2017.

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