While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the potential role of competitive displacement between vector species could inform both current insecticide-based vector control programmes and the development of future complementary interventions.
Genus Anopheles mosquitoes are the primary vectors of human malaria, which is a serious threat to public health worldwide. To reduce the spread of malaria and identify the malaria infection rates in mosquitoes, accurate species identification is needed. Malaria re-emerged in 1993 in the Republic of Korea (ROK), with numbers peaking in 2004 before decreasing to current levels. Eight Anopheles species (Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles pullus, Anopheles belenrae, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles sineroides, Anopheles koreicus, Anopheles lindesayi) are distributed throughout Korea. Members of the Anopheles Hyrcanus group currently cannot be identified morphologically. The other species of Anopheles can be identified morphologically, except when specimens are damaged in traps. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and accurate method for simultaneous molecular identification of the eight Anopheles species present in the ROK.
Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, nosocomial exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate rapid transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified.
Anopheles species identification is essential for an effective malaria vector control programme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed to identify adult Anopheles species, using the legs or the cephalothorax. The protein repertoire from arthropods can vary according to compartment, but there is no general consensus regarding the anatomic part to be used.
Anopheles sawadwongporni Rattanarithikul & Green, Anopheles maculatus Theobald and Anopheles pseudowillmori (Theobald) of the Anopheles maculatus group (Diptera: Culicidae) are recognized as potential malaria vectors in many countries from the Indian subcontinent through Southeast Asia to Taiwan. A number of malaria vectors in malaria hotspot areas along the Thai-Myanmar border belong to this complex. However, the species distribution and dynamic trends remain understudied in this malaria endemic region.
Understanding local Anopheles species compositions and bionomic traits are vital for an effective malaria vector intervention strategy. Though eight malaria vectors, including species complexes, have been documented across the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, a comprehensive survey linking morphological and molecular species identification has not been conducted in this global hotspot of biodiversity.
Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors of malaria, one of the most important infectious diseases in the tropics. More than 500 Anopheles species have been described worldwide, and more than 30 are considered a public health problem. In Honduras, information on the distribution of Anopheles spp. and its genetic diversity is scarce. This study aimed to describe the distribution and genetic diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes in Honduras.
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance.
Plant-based repellents have been applied for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection approach against different species of Anopheles. Knowledge of traditional repellent plants is a significant resource for the development of new natural products as an alternative to chemical repellents. Many studies have reported evidence of repellant activities of plant extracts or essential oils against malaria vectors worldwide. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of plant-based repellents against Anopheles mosquitoes.
The selected sample processing procedure can be used to identify field-collected Anopheles species, including vectors of Plasmodium, in a short period of time, with a minimal amount of tissue and without the need of an expert mosquito taxonomist.