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A threshold-free approach with age-dependency for estimating malaria seroprevalence

January 12, 2022 - 23:36 -- Open Access
Irene Kyomuhangi and Emanuele Giorgi
Malaria Journal 2022 21:1, 3 January 2022

In malaria serology analysis, the standard approach to obtain seroprevalence, i.e the proportion of seropositive individuals in a population, is based on a threshold which is used to classify individuals as seropositive or seronegative. The choice of this threshold is often arbitrary and is based on methods that ignore the age-dependency of the antibody distribution.

Incidence and consequences of damage to insecticide-treated mosquito nets in Kenya

January 12, 2022 - 22:54 -- Open Access
Thomas Smith, Adrian Denz, Maurice Ombok, Nabie Bayoh, Hannah Koenker, Nakul Chitnis, Olivier Briet, Joshua Yukich and John E. Gimnig
Malaria Journal 2021 20:476, 20 December 2021

Efforts to improve the impact of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) should be informed by understanding of the causes of decay in effect. Holes in LLINs have been estimated to account for 7–11% of loss in effect on vectorial capacity for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys of LLINs in Kenya. This does not account for the effect of holes as a cause of net attrition or non-use, which cannot be measured using only cross-sectional data. There is a need for estimates of how much these indirect effects of physical damage on use and attrition contribute to decay in effectiveness of LLINs.

Cross-sectional study to predict subnational levels of health workers' knowledge about severe malaria treatment in Kenya

January 12, 2022 - 20:05 -- Open Access
Machini B, Achia TN, Chesang J, Amboko B, Mwaniki P, Kipruto H
BMJ Open. 2022 Jan 5;12(1):e058511

This study applied a Bayesian hierarchical ecological spatial model beyond predictor analysis to test for the best fitting spatial effects model to predict subnational levels of health workers’ knowledge of severe malaria treatment policy, artesunate dosing, and preparation.

Hyper-prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in a rural area of western Kenya with declining malaria cases

January 5, 2022 - 23:10 -- Open Access
Kevin O. Ochwedo, Collince J. Omondi, Yan Guiyan, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:472, 20 December 2021

The gold standard for diagnosing Plasmodium falciparum infection is microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears. The effectiveness of this procedure for infection surveillance and malaria control may be limited by a relatively high parasitaemia detection threshold. Persons with microscopically undetectable infections may go untreated, contributing to ongoing transmission to mosquito vectors. The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and determinants of undiagnosed submicroscopic P. falciparum infections in a rural area of western Kenya.

Genetic markers associated with insecticide resistance and resting behaviour in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in selected sites in Kenya

December 28, 2021 - 21:07 -- Open Access
Sharon Mwagira-Maina, Steven Runo, Lucy Wachira, Stanley Kitur, Sarah Nyasende, Brigid Kemei, Eric Ochomo, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Charles Mbogo and Luna Kamau
Malaria Journal 2021 20:461, 13 December 2021

Molecular diagnostic tools have been incorporated in insecticide resistance monitoring programmes to identify underlying genetic basis of resistance and develop early warning systems of vector control failure. Identifying genetic markers of insecticide resistance is crucial in enhancing the ability to mitigate potential effects of resistance. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, the acetylcholinesterase-1 (ace-1R) mutation associated with resistance to organophosphates and carbamates and 2La chromosomal inversion associated with indoor resting behaviour, were investigated in the present study.

Bioefficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide-treated insecticidal net in a 3-year long trial in Kenya

December 27, 2021 - 10:44 -- Open Access
Gichuki PM, Kamau L, Njagi K, Karoki S, Muigai N, Matoke-Muhia D, Bayoh N, Mathenge E, Yadav RS
Infect Dis Poverty. 2021 Dec 20;10(1):135

Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) are a core malaria intervention. LLINs should retain efficacy against mosquito vectors for a minimum of three years. Efficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treated LLIN, was evaluated versus permethrin treated Olyset® Net. In the absence of WHO guidelines of how to evaluate PBO nets, and considering the manufacturer’s product claim, Olyset® Plus was evaluated as a pyrethroid LLIN.

Seven-year kinetics of RTS, S/AS01-induced anti-CSP antibodies in young Kenyan children

December 17, 2021 - 21:26 -- Open Access
Robert M. Mugo, Kennedy Mwai, Jedidah Mwacharo, Faiz M. Shee, Jennifer N. Musyoki, Juliana Wambua, Edward Otieno, Philip Bejon and Francis M. Ndungu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:452, 2 December 2021

RTS,S/AS01, the leading malaria vaccine has been recommended by the WHO for widespread immunization of children at risk. RTS,S/AS01-induced anti-CSP IgG antibodies are associated with the vaccine efficacy. Here, the long-term kinetics of RTS,S/AS01-induced antibodies was investigated.

Not Open Access | Predictors of Plasmodium falciparum infection in the first trimester among nulliparous women from Kenya, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

December 14, 2021 - 21:07 -- NOT Open Access
Leuba SI, Westreich D, Bauserman M, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 9:jiab588

Malaria can have deleterious effects early in pregnancy, during placentation. However, malaria testing and treatment are rarely initiated until the second trimester, leaving pregnancies unprotected in the first trimester. To inform potential early intervention approaches, we sought to identify clinical and demographic predictors of first-trimester malaria.

Rethinking the economic costs of hospitalization for malaria: accounting for the comorbidities of malaria patients in western Kenya

November 20, 2021 - 13:26 -- Open Access
Caroline Watts, Harrysone Atieli, Jason Alacapa, Ming-Chieh Lee, Guofa Zhou, Andrew Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Virginia Wiseman
Malaria Journal 2021 20:429, 30 October 2021

Malaria causes significant mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa, especially among children under five years of age and places a huge economic burden on individuals and health systems. While this burden has been assessed previously, few studies have explored how malaria comorbidities affect inpatient costs. This study in a malaria endemic area in Western Kenya, assessed the total treatment costs per malaria episode including comorbidities in children and adults.

Determinants of improvement trends in health workers' compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines at health facilities with available "test and treat" commodities in Kenya

November 10, 2021 - 20:47 -- Open Access
Amboko B, Stepniewska K, Malla L, Machini B, Bejon P, Snow RW, Zurovac D
PLoS One. 2021 Nov 5;16(11):e0259020

Health workers’ compliance with outpatient malaria case-management guidelines has been improving in Africa. This study examined the factors associated with the improvements.


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