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A comparison of PCR and ELISA methods to detect different stages of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles arabiensis

September 25, 2021 - 11:41 -- Open Access
Hendershot AL, Esayas E, Sutcliffe AC, Irish SR, Gadisa E, Tadesse FG, Lobo NF
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):473

In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.

Evidence of Artemisinin-Resistant Malaria in Africa

September 23, 2021 - 11:38 -- Open Access
Balikagala B, Fukuda N, Mita T, et al.
N Engl J Med. 2021 Sep 23;385(13):1163-1171

In the six Southeast Asian countries that make up the Greater Mekong Subregion, Plasmodium falciparum has developed resistance to derivatives of artemisinin, the main component of first-line treatments for malaria. Clinical resistance to artemisinin monotherapy in other global regions, including Africa, would be problematic.

B Cell Receptor Repertoire Analysis in Malaria-Naive and Malaria-Experienced Individuals Reveals Unique Characteristics of Atypical Memory B Cells

September 23, 2021 - 11:36 -- Open Access
Braddom AE, Bol S, Gonzales SJ, Reyes RA, Musinguzi K, Nankya F, Ssewanyana I, Greenhouse B, Bunnik EM
mSphere. 2021 Sep 15:e0072621

Malaria, caused by parasites of the Plasmodium genus, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality globally. Chronic Plasmodium falciparum exposure affects the B cell compartment, leading to the accumulation of atypical memory B cells (atMBCs). IgM-positive (IgM+) and IgG+ atMBCs have not been compared in-depth in the context of malaria, nor is it known if atMBCs in malaria-experienced individuals are different from phenotypically similar B cells in individuals with no known history of Plasmodium exposure.

NOT Open Access | Suppressive, curative, and prophylactic potentials of an antimalarial polyherbal mixture and its individual components in Plasmodium berghei-Infected mice

September 23, 2021 - 11:33 -- NOT Open Access
Alaribe SC, Oladipupo AR, Uche GC, Onumba MU, Ota D, Awodele O, Oyibo WA
J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Sep 15;277:114105

Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations.

NOT Open Access | Multi-functional antibody profiling for malaria vaccine development and evaluation

September 23, 2021 - 10:42 -- NOT Open Access
Opi DH, Kurtovic L, Chan JA, Horton JL, Feng G, Beeson JG
Expert Rev Vaccines. 2021 Sep 17

A vaccine would greatly accelerate current global efforts towards malaria elimination. While a partially efficacious vaccine has been achieved for Plasmodium falciparum, a major bottleneck in developing highly efficacious vaccines is a lack of reliable correlates of protection, and the limited application of assays that quantify functional immune responses to evaluate and down-select vaccine candidates in pre-clinical studies and clinical trials.

The association between malaria prevalence and COVID-19 mortality

September 23, 2021 - 10:40 -- Open Access
Anyanwu MU
BMC Infect Dis. 2021 Sep 19;21(1):975

The number of persons infected with COVID-19 continues to increase with deaths reported daily across the globe. High income countries such as the US, the UK, Italy and Belgium have reported high COVID-19 related deaths but low-and-middle-income countries have recorded fewer deaths despite having poor healthcare system. This study aimed to investigate the association between malaria prevalence and COVID-19 mortality.

Prevalence and risk factors associated with asymptomatic malaria among school children: repeated cross-sectional surveys of school children in two ecological zones in Ghana

September 23, 2021 - 10:39 -- Open Access
Mensah BA, Myers-Hansen JL, Obeng Amoako E, Opoku M, Abuaku BK, Ghansah A
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 17;21(1):1697

Asymptomatic Plasmodium infections significantly drive malaria transmission and impact control and elimination strategies, but are largely uncharacterized. We investigated the prevalence and risk factors of asymptomatic malaria infections to inform malaria control strategies in Ghana.

Early warning systems (EWSs) for chikungunya, dengue, malaria, yellow fever, and Zika outbreaks: What is the evidence? A scoping review

September 23, 2021 - 10:36 -- Open Access
Hussain-Alkhateeb L, Rivera Ramírez T, Kroeger A, Gozzer E, Runge-Ranzinger S
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 16;15(9):e0009686

Early warning systems (EWSs) are of increasing importance in the context of outbreak-prone diseases such as chikungunya, dengue, malaria, yellow fever, and Zika. A scoping review has been undertaken for all 5 diseases to summarize existing evidence of EWS tools in terms of their structural and statistical designs, feasibility of integration and implementation into national surveillance programs, and the users’ perspective of their applications.

NOT Open Access | "Big Three" Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis, Malaria and HIV/AIDS

September 23, 2021 - 10:34 -- NOT Open Access
Makam P, Matsa R
Curr Top Med Chem. 2021 Sep 16

Infectious diseases have been evolving and re-evolving over the ages and causing immense misery to humans. Among them, some have been prevented and eradicated, but few are still threatening the modern era since their origin. The majority of these infectious diseases are poverty-driven, hence highly prevalent in the lower-income and mid-income countries of Africa and Asia.

Primary school students' poetic malaria messages from Jimma zone, Oromia, Ethiopia: a qualitative content analysis

September 23, 2021 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Kebede Y, Hayder A, Girma K, Abamecha F, Alemayehu G, Abebe L, Sudhakar M, Birhanu Z
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 16;21(1):1688

The engagement of schools in malaria control is an emerging strategy. Little is known about the involvement of students in the development of malaria messages. This study evaluated the message content of primary school students’ malaria poems.


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