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Africa

NOT Open Access | Making a good malaria vaccine better

January 5, 2022 - 20:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Duffy PE
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2022 Jan;38(1):9-10

Last month, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended widespread use of RTS,S/AS01 vaccine to prevent malaria in young African children, noting its 30% reduction in deadly severe malaria.

NOT Open Access | Sub-lethal exposure to malaria vector control pesticides causes alterations in liver metabolomics and behaviour of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis)

January 5, 2022 - 20:44 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wolmarans NJ, Bervoets L, Meire P, Wepener V
Reference: 
Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2022 Jan;251:109173

In this study we explore the sub-lethal effects of two malaria vector control pesticides, deltamethrin and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), on Xenopus laevis by incorporating different levels of biological organisation. Pesticide accumulation in frog tissue was measured alongside liver metabolomics and individual swimming behaviour to assess whether changes presented at these different levels, and if such changes could be linked between levels.

Harmonic convergence coordinates swarm mating by enhancing mate detection in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

December 23, 2021 - 10:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Garcia Castillo SS, Pritts KS, Krishnan RS, Harrington LC, League GP
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 16;11(1):24102

The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major African malaria vector, transmitting parasites responsible for significant mortality and disease burden. Although flight acoustics are essential to mosquito mating and present promising alternatives to insecticide-based vector control strategies, there is limited data on mosquito flight tones during swarming. Here, for the first time, we present detailed analyses of free-flying male and female An. gambiae flight tones and their harmonization (harmonic convergence) over a complete swarm sequence.

Prevalence of potential mediators of artemisinin resistance in African isolates of Plasmodium falciparum

December 17, 2021 - 21:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Afolabi Owoloye, Michael Olufemi, Emmanuel T. Idowu and Kolapo M. Oyebola
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:451, 2 December 2021

The devastating public health impact of malaria has prompted the need for effective interventions. Malaria control gained traction after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, the emergence of artemisinin (ART) partial resistance in Southeast Asia and emerging reports of delayed parasite sensitivity to ACT in African parasites signal a gradual trend towards treatment failure. Monitoring the prevalence of mutations associated with artemisinin resistance in African populations is necessary to stop resistance in its tracks. Mutations in Plasmodium falciparum genes pfk13, pfcoronin and pfatpase6 have been linked with ART partial resistance.

Malaria protection due to sickle haemoglobin depends on parasite genotype

December 14, 2021 - 20:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Band G, Leffler EM, Kwiatkowski DP, et al.
Reference: 
Nature. 2021 Dec 9.

Host genetic factors can confer resistance against malaria1, raising the question of whether this has led to evolutionary adaptation of parasite populations. In this study we searched for association between candidate host and parasite genetic variants in 3,346 Gambian and Kenyan children ascertained with severe malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum. We identified a strong association between sickle haemoglobin (HbS) in the host and three regions of the parasite genome, that is not explained by population structure or other covariates, and that is replicated in additional samples.

The Anti-Circumsporozoite Antibody Response Of Children To Seasonal Vaccination With The Rts,S/As01e Malaria Vaccine

December 14, 2021 - 20:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sagara I, Zongo I, Greenwood B, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Dec 11:ciab1017

A trial in young African children showed that combining seasonal vaccination with the RTS,S/AS01E vaccine with seasonal malaria chemoprevention reduced the incidence of uncomplicated and severe malaria substantially compared to either intervention given alone. This paper reports the anti-circumsporozoite antibody response to seasonal RTS,S/AS01E vaccination in children in this trial.

Genetic diversity and immunogenicity of the merozoite surface protein 1 C-terminal 19-kDa fragment of Plasmodium ovale imported from Africa into China

December 1, 2021 - 20:25 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Xu Q, Liu S, Kassegne K, Yang B, Lu J, Sun Y, Zhong W, Zhang M, Liu Y, Zhu G, Cao J, Cheng Y
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Nov 24;14(1):583

Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion by malaria parasites. The C-terminal 19-kDa region of MSP1 has long been considered one of the major candidate antigens for a malaria blood-stage vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum. However, there is limited information on the C-terminal 19-kDa region of Plasmodium ovale MSP1 (PoMSP119). This study aims to analyze the genetic diversity and immunogenicity of PoMSP119.

NOT Open Access | High genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum isolates among Chinese migrant workers returnee from Africa

November 13, 2021 - 10:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Xu C, Huang B, Wei Q, Li J, Kong X, Xiao T, Sun H, Zhao G, Yan G, Gong M, Yin K
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Nov 9

Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases that causes a serious public health problem. The genetic diversity of malaria parasites may affect malaria transmission and malaria control strategies. In China, imported malaria was significantly increased in recent years, among which numerous migrant workers were infected with Plasmodium falciparum from Africa.

Aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in African children: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

November 3, 2021 - 20:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ray STJ, Fuller C, Boubour A, Bonnett LJ, Lalloo DG, Seydel KB, Griffiths MJ
Reference: 
Syst Rev. 2021 Oct 29;10(1):282

Non-traumatic coma is a common acute childhood presentation to healthcare facilities in Africa and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Historically, the majority of cases were attributed to cerebral malaria (CM). With the recent drastic reduction in malaria incidence, non-malarial coma is becoming a larger proportion of cases and determining the aetiology is diagnostically challenging, particularly in resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study will be to evaluate the aetiology and prognosis of non-traumatic coma in African children.

NOT Open Access | Pediatric Cerebral Malaria

October 30, 2021 - 12:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Guenther G, Muller D, Moyo D, Postels D
Reference: 
Curr Trop Med Rep. 2021 Jun;8(2):69-80

Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humankind. Cerebral malaria is malaria’s deadliest clinical manifestation and has a profound public health impact in endemic areas. In Africa, it is primarily a disease of childhood. Here we review recent updates in research into cerebral malaria pathogenesis, clinical care, treatment, and prevention.

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