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cerebral malaria

NOT Open Access | Cerebral malaria associated with mixed forms of acute macular neuroretinopathy and paracentral acute middle maculopathy

November 24, 2021 - 20:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bradly K, Relvas LJM, Draganova D, Postelmans L
Reference: 
J Fr Ophtalmol. 2021 Nov 18:S0181-5512(21)00537-4

Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) is a rare retinal disorder first described by Bos and Deutman in 1975. It usually presents as an acute onset of paracentral scotoma, with characteristic fundus findings of reddish-brown wedge-shaped or petaloid lesions located within the parafoveal area. With the recent advances of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), Sarraf et al. initially categorized the lesions into two types according to the layer involved: either above or below the outer plexiform layer (OPL).

Aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in African children: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

November 3, 2021 - 20:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ray STJ, Fuller C, Boubour A, Bonnett LJ, Lalloo DG, Seydel KB, Griffiths MJ
Reference: 
Syst Rev. 2021 Oct 29;10(1):282

Non-traumatic coma is a common acute childhood presentation to healthcare facilities in Africa and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Historically, the majority of cases were attributed to cerebral malaria (CM). With the recent drastic reduction in malaria incidence, non-malarial coma is becoming a larger proportion of cases and determining the aetiology is diagnostically challenging, particularly in resource-limited settings. The purpose of this study will be to evaluate the aetiology and prognosis of non-traumatic coma in African children.

NOT Open Access | Pediatric Cerebral Malaria

October 30, 2021 - 12:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Guenther G, Muller D, Moyo D, Postels D
Reference: 
Curr Trop Med Rep. 2021 Jun;8(2):69-80

Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humankind. Cerebral malaria is malaria’s deadliest clinical manifestation and has a profound public health impact in endemic areas. In Africa, it is primarily a disease of childhood. Here we review recent updates in research into cerebral malaria pathogenesis, clinical care, treatment, and prevention.

Plasmodium falciparum clearance time in Malawian children with cerebral malaria: a retrospective cohort study

October 29, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Alexuse M. Saidi, Geoffrey Guenther, Rima Izem, Xiaojun Chen, Karl Seydel and Douglas Postels
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:408, 18 October 2021

Standard treatment for both uncomplicated and severe malaria is artemisinin derivatives. Delayed parasite clearance times preceded the appearance of artemisinin treatment failures in Southeast Asia. Most worldwide malaria cases are in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where clinically significant artemisinin resistance or treatment failure has not yet been detected. The recent emergence of a resistance-conferring genetic mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite in Africa warrants continued monitoring throughout the continent.

Pandemic-related delay of falciparum malaria diagnosis in a traveler leading to cerebral malaria

October 16, 2021 - 19:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Schubert L, Thurnher MM, Machold K, Tobudic S, Winkler S
Reference: 
J Travel Med. 2021 Oct 5:taab159

We report the case of a 29-year-old male in whom COVID-19 concerns led to a delayed diagnosis of falciparum malaria.

Transcriptome-based analysis of blood samples reveals elevation of DNA damage response, neutrophil degranulation, cancer and neurodegenerative pathways in Plasmodium falciparum patients

October 9, 2021 - 09:46 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Akua A. Karikari, Wasco Wruck and James Adjaye
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:383, 26 September 2021

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum results in severe complications including cerebral malaria (CM) especially in children. While the majority of falciparum malaria survivors make a full recovery, there are reports of some patients ending up with neurological sequelae or cognitive deficit.

NOT Open Access | Mast cells-derived exosomes worsen the development of experimental cerebral malaria

October 2, 2021 - 13:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Huang K, Huang L, Huang B, et al.
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Sep 22:106145

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe neurological complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. The accumulating evidence demonstrated that mast cells (MCs) and its mediators played a critical role in mediating malaria severity. Earlier studies identified that exosomes were emerging as key mediators of intercellular communication and can be released from several kinds of MCs. However, the potential functions and pathological mechanisms of MCs-derived exosomes (MCs-Exo) impacting on CM pathogenesis remain largely unknown.

Determinants of brain swelling in pediatric and adult cerebral malaria

September 23, 2021 - 10:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sahu PK, Duffy FJ, Wassmer SC, et al.
Reference: 
JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 22;6(18):e145823

Cerebral malaria (CM) affects children and adults, but brain swelling is more severe in children. To investigate features associated with brain swelling in malaria, we performed blood profiling and brain MRI in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with CM in Rourkela, India, and compared them with an African pediatric CM cohort in Malawi. We determined that higher plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) levels and elevated var transcripts that encode for binding to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were linked to CM at both sites.

NOT Open Access | Using a new three-dimensional CUBIC tissue-clearing method to examine the brain during experimental cerebral malaria

September 1, 2021 - 16:04 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Matsuo-Dapaah J, Lee MSJ, Ishii KJ, Tainaka K, Coban C
Reference: 
Int Immunol. 2021 Aug 29:dxab060

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a life-threatening complication of the malaria disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection and is responsible for the death of half a million people annually. The molecular pathogenesis underlying CM in humans is not completely understood, although sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cerebral microvessels is thought to play a major role. In contrast, experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) models in mice have been thought to be distinct from human CM, and are mainly caused by inflammatory mediators.

Cerebral malaria: insight into pathology from optical coherence tomography

August 11, 2021 - 14:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tu Z, Gormley J, Sheth V, Seydel KB, Taylor T, Beare N, Barrera V, Proudlock FA, Manda C, Harding S, Gottlob I
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 3;11(1):15722

We aimed to investigate structural retinal changes in malarial retinopathy (MR) using hand-held optical coherence tomography (HH-OCT) to assess its diagnostic potential. Children with MR (n = 43) underwent ophthalmoscopy, fluorescein angiography and HH-OCT during admission, 1-month (n = 31) and 1-year (n = 8) post-discharge. Controls were comatose patients without malaria (n = 6) and age/sex-matched healthy children (n = 43). OCT changes and retinal layer thicknesses were compared. On HH-OCT, hyper-reflective areas (HRAs) were seen in the inner retina of 81% of MR patients, corresponding to ischaemic retinal whitening on fundus photography.

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