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cerebral malaria

Bioengineered 3D Microvessels for Investigating Plasmodium falciparum Pathogenesis

May 5, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Bernabeu M, Howard C, Zheng Y, Smith JD
Trends Parasitol. 2021 May;37(5):401-413

Plasmodium falciparum pathogenesis is complex and intimately connected to vascular physiology. This is exemplified by cerebral malaria (CM), a neurovascular complication that accounts for most of the malaria deaths worldwide. P. falciparum sequestration in the brain microvasculature is a hallmark of CM and is not replicated in animal models.

NOT Open Access | Identification of Plasmodium falciparum-specific protein PIESP2 as a novel virulence factor related to cerebral malaria

May 5, 2021 - 11:20 -- NOT Open Access
Liu X, Wu Y, Zhao Y, Huang Y, Xu K, Wang J, Pan S, Liang J
Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Apr 30;177:535-547

Cerebral malaria (CM) is the most severe complication caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection. The pathophysiological changes caused by parasite virulence factors and the human immune response to parasites contribute to CM. To date, very few parasite virulence proteins have been found to participate in CM. Here, we employed comparative genomics analysis and identified parasite-infected erythrocyte specific protein 2 (PIESP2) to be a CM-related protein. We conducted further experimental investigations and found that PIESP2 is an immunogenic protein.

NOT Open Access | Post-Malaria Anemia Is Rare in Malawian Children with Cerebral Malaria

April 28, 2021 - 14:24 -- NOT Open Access
Guenther G, Saidi AM, Izem R, Seydel K, Postels DG
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Apr 26:tpmd201668

Artesunate therapy for severe malaria syndromes has been associated with post-treatment hemolysis and anemia. We defined post-malaria anemia as any decrease in hematocrit between the index hospitalization for severe malaria and 1 month after. We determined the incidence and severity of post-malaria anemia in Malawian children surviving cerebral malaria (CM) by analyzing hospital and follow-up data from a long-standing study of CM pathogenesis. Children enrolled before 2014 and treated with quinine (N = 258) were compared with those admitted in 2014 and after, and treated with artesunate (N = 235).

NOT Open Access | Severe stridor and profound weakness after cerebral malaria

April 14, 2021 - 16:40 -- NOT Open Access
Fuller C, Wooldridge G, Liomba A, Ray STJ
BMJ Case Rep. 2021 Apr 13;14(4):e237681

Cerebral malaria (CM) is defined by WHO as coma (Blantyre Coma Score 2 or less) in a patient with Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia and no alternative cause of coma identified. Mortality is approximately 15%-30% in African children and up to one-third of survivors have neurological sequelae. We present a patient with severe stridor and prolonged profound weakness during an intensive care admission with CM.

Adipose tissue parasite sequestration drives leptin production in mice and correlates with human cerebral malaria

March 26, 2021 - 16:05 -- Open Access
Mejia P, Treviño-Villarreal JH, Mitchell JR, et al.
Sci Adv. 2021 Mar 24;7(13):eabe2484

Circulating levels of the adipokine leptin are linked to neuropathology in experimental cerebral malaria (ECM), but its source and regulation mechanism remain unknown. Here, we show that sequestration of infected red blood cells (iRBCs) in white adipose tissue (WAT) microvasculature increased local vascular permeability and leptin production. Mice infected with parasite strains that fail to sequester in WAT displayed reduced leptin production and protection from ECM.

NOT Open Access | Vector-borne protozoal infections of the CNS: cerebral malaria, sleeping sickness and Chagas disease

March 17, 2021 - 09:22 -- NOT Open Access
Singh G, Njamnshi AK, Sander L
Curr Opin Neurol. 2021 Mar 11

Malaria, Chagas Disease and Human African Trypanosomiasis are vector-borne protozoan illnesses, frequently associated with neurological manifestations. Intriguing but ignored, limited mainly to resource-limited, tropical settings, these disorders are now coming to light because of globalisation and improved diagnosis and treatment. Enhanced understanding of these illnesses has prompted this review.

NOT Open Access | Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebral Malaria

March 17, 2021 - 09:10 -- NOT Open Access
Sandip S, Chandrashekhara SH
Indian J Pediatr. 2021 Mar 11

A 10-y-old boy presented with history of on and off fever with rigor for one week followed by altered sensorium. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal areas of hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving bilateral thalami, bilateral external capsule, midbrain, pons, cerebellar peduncles, and splenium.

NOT Open Access | Perillyl alcohol reduces parasite sequestration and cerebrovascular dysfunction during experimental cerebral malaria

March 4, 2021 - 11:23 -- NOT Open Access
Marin AA, Murillo O, Sussmann RA, Ortolan LS, Battagello DS, de Castro Quirino T, Bittencourt JC, Epiphanio S, Katzin AM, Carvalho LJM
Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2021 Mar 1:AAC.00004-21

Cerebral malaria (CM) is a severe immunovasculopathy which presents high mortality rate (15-20%), despite the availability of artemisinin-based therapy. More effective immunomodulatory and/or antiparasitic therapies are urgently needed. Experimental Cerebral Malaria (ECM) in mice is used to elucidate aspects involved in this pathology since manifests many of the neurological features of CM.

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 variants induce cell swelling and disrupt the blood-brain barrier in cerebral malaria

March 2, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Adams Y, Olsen RW, Jensen ATR, et al.
J Exp Med. 2021 Mar 1;218(3):e20201266

Cerebral malaria (CM) is caused by the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs) to the brain microvasculature, leading to inflammation, vessel occlusion, and cerebral swelling. We have previously linked dual intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)- and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)-binding P. falciparum parasites to these symptoms, but the mechanism driving the pathogenesis has not been identified.

NOT Open Access | Hemozoin is a potential threat in cerebral malaria pathology through the induction of RBC-EC cytoadherence

February 23, 2021 - 13:18 -- NOT Open Access
Mehra A, Balaji SN, Trivedi V
Acta Trop. 2021 Feb 18:105867

Cerebral malaria is an outcome of multifaceted and complicated condition. Cytoadherence is one critical factor in cerebral malaria pathology as high order cytoadherence complexes result in vascular congestion and cell apoptosis. Morphological abnormalities in uninfected RBCs can be a contributing factor to aggravate cytoadherence. Malaria pigment hemozoin is a potential bioactive molecule and the role of this pigment in cerebral malaria pathology is not completely understood. To understand this, primarily we investigated the impact of hemozoin pigment on uninfected RBCs.


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