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LLIN

A colorimetric test for the evaluation of the insecticide content of LLINs used on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

November 20, 2021 - 14:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Teunis A. Eggelte, Guillermo A. García and Feliciano Monti
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:433, 10 November 2021

Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying of insecticides are used as the vector control interventions in the fight against malaria. Measuring the actual amount of deposits of insecticides on bed nets and walls is essential for evaluating the quality and effectiveness of the intervention. A colorimetric “Test Kit” designed for use as a screening tool, able to detect the type II pyrethroids on fabrics and sprayed walls, was used for the first time to detect deltamethrin on long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) deployed on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea.

A citizen science-based survey of avian mortality focusing on haemosporidian infections in wild passerine birds

November 18, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tanja Himmel, Josef Harl, Julia Matt and Herbert Weissenböck
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:417, 23 October 2021

Haemosporidioses are common in birds and their manifestations range from subclinical infections to severe disease, depending on the involved parasite and bird species. Clinical haemosporidioses are often observed in non-adapted zoo or aviary birds, whereas in wild birds, particularly passerines, haemosporidian infections frequently seem to be asymptomatic. However, a recent study from Austria showed pathogenic haemosporidian infections in common blackbirds due to high parasite burdens of Plasmodium matutinum LINN1, a common parasite in this bird species, suggesting that virulent infections also occur in natural hosts. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to explore whether and to what extent other native bird species are possibly affected by pathogenic haemosporidian lineages, contributing to avian morbidity.

On the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated wall liner and indoor residual spraying as additions to insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria: findings from cluster randomized trials in Tanzania

September 23, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mpangala KR, Halasa-Rappel YA, Shepard DS, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1666

Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.

NOT Open Access | An Adaptive Intervention Trial Design for Finding the Optimal Integrated Strategies for Malaria Control and Elimination in Africa: A Model Simulation Study

September 8, 2021 - 17:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Zhou G, Lee MC, Wang X, Zhong D, Hemming-Schroeder E, Yan G
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd200254

There are a number of available and emerging malaria intervention tools that require innovative trial designs to find the optimal combinations at given epidemiologic settings. We simulated intervention strategies based on adaptive interventions, which included long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), piperonyl butoxide-treated LLINs (PBO-LLINs), indoor residual spraying (IRS), and long-lasting microbial larviciding (LLML). The aims were to determine if PBO-LLINs or LLIN+IRS combination is more effective for initial interventions than LLINs and to identify the most effective intervention.

Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

September 7, 2021 - 15:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sanou A, Nelli L, Guelbéogo WM, Cissé F, Tapsoba M, Ouédraogo P, Sagnon N, Ranson H, Matthiopoulos J, Ferguson HM
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 2;11(1):17569

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected.

Predictors of knowledge and use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria among the pregnant women in Pakistan

August 25, 2021 - 17:27 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ramesh Kumar, Midhat Farzeen, Jamil Ahmed, Manohar Lal and Ratana Somrongthong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:347, 23 August 2021

Malaria is endemic to Pakistan with high prevalence among pregnant women and linked with maternal anaemia, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm birth, and low birth weight. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is a proven and cost-effective intervention preventing malaria among pregnant women. The present study aimed to explore predictors of knowledge and use of LLINs among pregnant women in Pakistan.

Insecticide-treated net distribution in Western Kenya: impacts related to COVID-19 and health worker strikes

August 18, 2021 - 17:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Suiyanka L, Alegana VA, Snow RW
Reference: 
Int Health. 2021 Aug 16:ihab051

We examined the impact of coronavirus disease (COVID) mitigation, supply and distribution interruptions on the delivery of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in Western Kenya. The median monthly distribution of LLINs declined during COVID mitigation strategies (March-July 2020) and during the health worker strikes (December 2020-February 2021).

NOT Open Access | The Unsustainability of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets

August 10, 2021 - 18:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Santos EM, Curtis TM
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 9:tpmd210276

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are highly effective tools for malaria prevention, and it is clear bed nets are necessary. However, given the environmental concerns of the production, distribution, and disposal of LLINs, the malaria prevention community should look to design sturdier nets that last longer and are made of more sustainable materials to reduce harmful environmental impacts in a time when addressing climate change is urgent.

Coverage, determinants of use and repurposing of long-lasting insecticidal nets two years after a mass distribution in Lihir Islands, Papua New Guinea: a cross-sectional study

August 4, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pere Millat-Martínez, Rebecca Gabong, Quique Bassat, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:336, 4 August 2021

Universal coverage with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) is an essential component of malaria control programmes. Three-yearly mass distribution of LLINs in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has been successful in reducing infection transmission since 2009, but malaria prevalence ramped up from 2015 onwards. Although LLIN universal coverage is mostly achieved during these campaigns, it may not be related with net use over time. Uses given to LLINs and non-compliance of this strategy were evaluated.

Geopolitical zones differentials in intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) utilization in Nigeria

July 20, 2021 - 13:16 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chukwu C, Onuoha H, Okorafor KAK, Ojomo O, Mokuolu OA, Ekholuenetale M
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jul 16;16(7):e0254475

The coverage of long lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) uptake for the prevention of malaria commonly vary by geography. Many sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries, including Nigeria are adopting the use of LLIN and IPTp to fight malaria. Albeit, the coverage of these interventions to prevent malaria across geographical divisions have been understudied in many countries. In this study, we aimed to explore the differentials in LLIN and IPTp uptake across Nigerian geopolitical zones.

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