Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard antimalarial drugs used for the treatment of malaria in children and pregnant women. Typically, ART and LUM are delivered orally in the form of a combined tablet, however, the appropriateness of this route of administration for these drugs is questionable due to the poor absorption and therefore bioavailability observed unless administered alongside lipid-rich foods.Transdermal drug delivery in the form of a patch-type system has been identified as a viable alternative to the conventional tablet-based therapy.
The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.
Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.
Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) has shown high protective efficacy against clinical malaria and severe malaria in a series of clinical trials. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC treatments against clinical malaria when delivered at scale through national malaria control programmes in 2015 and 2016.
Routine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored.
Malaria kills one child every 30 seconds reaching up to 3000 children a day. The mosquito borne malarial parasite invades the blood stream and hijacks red blood cells (RBCs). One of the medical successes of the 20th century was development of malaria diagnostic tests. However, poor specificity and sensitivity along with the inability of these assays to distinguish active malarial infections has put the management scheme in jeopardy.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes morbidity and mortality in African children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but comparisons of host responses to P. falciparum between children with SCA (HbSS) and HbAA are limited. We assessed parasite biomass and plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in children with HbAA (n=208) or HbSS (n=22) who presented with severe anemia and P. falciparum parasitemia to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Genotyping was performed at study completion.
A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).
Azithromycin has recently been shown to reduce all-cause childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. One potential mechanism of this effect is via the anti-malarial effect of azithromycin, which may help treat or prevent malaria infection. This study evaluated short- and longer-term effects of azithromycin on malaria outcomes in children.
The World Health Organization prioritizes malaria surveillance for accurate tracking of progress of intervention programmes. The malaria parasite rate (PR) and spleen rate (SR) are economical surveillance tools. There has been a global decline in the burden of malaria over the last decade, but most African countries, like Nigeria, have a slow rate of decline. There is a need for adequate malaria surveillance to guide malaria control strategies and policymaking.