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Novel transdermal bioadhesive surfactant-based system for release and solubility improvement of antimalarial drugs Artemether-Lumefantrine

September 23, 2021 - 08:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Volpe-Zanutto F, Fonseca-Santos B, Foglio MA, et al.
Reference: 
Biomed Mater. 2021 Sep 20

Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard antimalarial drugs used for the treatment of malaria in children and pregnant women. Typically, ART and LUM are delivered orally in the form of a combined tablet, however, the appropriateness of this route of administration for these drugs is questionable due to the poor absorption and therefore bioavailability observed unless administered alongside lipid-rich foods.Transdermal drug delivery in the form of a patch-type system has been identified as a viable alternative to the conventional tablet-based therapy.

Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial

September 15, 2021 - 11:28 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nkosi-Gondwe T, Robberstad B, Mukaka M, Idro R, Opoka RO, Banda S, Kühl MJ, O Ter Kuile F, Blomberg B, Phiri KS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Sep 10;16(9):e0255769

The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia.

Hepcidin regulation in Kenyan children with severe malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia

September 14, 2021 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Abuga KM, Muriuki JM, Atkinson SH, et al.
Reference: 
Haematologica. 2021 Sep 9

Malaria and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) are life-threatening infections that often co-exist in African children. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is highly upregulated during malaria and controls the availability of iron, a critical nutrient for bacterial growth. We investigated the relationship between Plasmodium falciparum malaria and NTS bacteremia in all pediatric admissions aged ≤5 years between August 1998 and October 2019 (n=75,034). We then assayed hepcidin and measures of iron status in five groups: (1) children with concomitant severe malarial anemia (SMA) and NTS (SMA+NTS, n=16); and in matched children with (2) SMA (n=33); (3) NTS (n=33); (4) cerebral malaria (CM, n=34); and (5) community-based children.

Effectiveness of seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) treatments when SMC is implemented at scale: Case-control studies in 5 countries

September 14, 2021 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cairns M, Ceesay SJ, Milligan P, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Sep 8;18(9):e1003727

Seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) has shown high protective efficacy against clinical malaria and severe malaria in a series of clinical trials. We evaluated the effectiveness of SMC treatments against clinical malaria when delivered at scale through national malaria control programmes in 2015 and 2016.

NOT Open Access | Therapeutic Efficacy of Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Investigation of Molecular Markers of Antimalarial Resistance

September 8, 2021 - 17:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Moriarty LF, Nkoli PM, Kahunu GM, et al.
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 7:tpmd210214

Routine assessment of the efficacy of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is critical for the early detection of antimalarial resistance. We evaluated the efficacy of ACTs recommended for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in five sites in Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC): artemether-lumefantrine (AL), artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ), and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Children aged 6-59 months with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria were treated with one of the three ACTs and monitored.

NOT Open Access | OPD (Online Plasmodium Diagnosis): An ALA-PpIX based Functional Assay to Predict Active Malaria

September 8, 2021 - 16:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ashraf S, Agyapong J, Rohrbach P, Hasan T
Reference: 
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2021 Aug 30:102510

Malaria kills one child every 30 seconds reaching up to 3000 children a day. The mosquito borne malarial parasite invades the blood stream and hijacks red blood cells (RBCs). One of the medical successes of the 20th century was development of malaria diagnostic tests. However, poor specificity and sensitivity along with the inability of these assays to distinguish active malarial infections has put the management scheme in jeopardy.

Decreased parasite burden and altered host response in children with sickle cell anemia and severe anemia with malaria

September 8, 2021 - 15:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henrici RC, Sautter CL, Bond C, Opoka RO, Namazzi R, Datta D, Ware RE, Conroy AL, John CC
Reference: 
Blood Adv. 2021 Sep 1:bloodadvances.2021004704

Plasmodium falciparum malaria causes morbidity and mortality in African children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but comparisons of host responses to P. falciparum between children with SCA (HbSS) and HbAA are limited. We assessed parasite biomass and plasma markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in children with HbAA (n=208) or HbSS (n=22) who presented with severe anemia and P. falciparum parasitemia to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Genotyping was performed at study completion.

Not Open Access | Degradation of endothelial glycocalyx in Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria

September 1, 2021 - 17:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bush MA, Florence SM, Yeo TW, Kalingonji AR, Chen Y, Granger DL, Rubach MP, Anstey NM, Mwaikambo ED, Weinberg JB
Reference: 
FASEB J. 2021 Sep;35(9):e21805

A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).

Effect of a single dose of oral azithromycin on malaria parasitaemia in children: a randomized controlled trial

September 1, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Boubacar Coulibaly, Ali Sié, Catherine E. Oldenburg, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:360, 31 August 2021

Azithromycin has recently been shown to reduce all-cause childhood mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. One potential mechanism of this effect is via the anti-malarial effect of azithromycin, which may help treat or prevent malaria infection. This study evaluated short- and longer-term effects of azithromycin on malaria outcomes in children.

NOT Open Access | Towards malaria control in Nigeria: implications of the malaria parasite rate and spleen rate among children living in a rural community in southwest Nigeria

September 1, 2021 - 16:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Fatunla OAT, Olatunya OS, Ogundare EO, Fatunla TO, Oluwayemi IO, Oluwadiya KS, Oyelami OA
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 30:trab131

The World Health Organization prioritizes malaria surveillance for accurate tracking of progress of intervention programmes. The malaria parasite rate (PR) and spleen rate (SR) are economical surveillance tools. There has been a global decline in the burden of malaria over the last decade, but most African countries, like Nigeria, have a slow rate of decline. There is a need for adequate malaria surveillance to guide malaria control strategies and policymaking.

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