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anopheles stephensi

Human blood type influences the host-seeking behavior and fecundity of the Asian malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

December 23, 2021 - 10:29 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Khan SA, Kassim NFA, Webb CE, Aqueel MA, Ahmad S, Malik S, Hussain T
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Dec 21;11(1):24298

The nutritional requirements of mosquitoes include both sugar (generally derived from the nectar of flowers) and blood (humans or animals). Mosquitoes express different degrees of preferences towards hosts depending on behavioral, ecological, and physiological factors. These preferences have implications for mosquito-borne disease risk. The present study is directed to reveal the effect of the human blood groups on the fecundity and fertility of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

NOT Open Access | Preparation and Optimization of Peppermint (Mentha Pipertia) Essential Oil Nanoemulsion with Effective Herbal Larvicidal, Pupicidal, and Ovicidal Activity against Anopheles Stephensi

December 23, 2021 - 09:50 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Narasimman M, Natesan V, Mayakrishnan V, Rajendran J, Venkatesan A, Kim SJ
Reference: 
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2021 Dec 15

The Plasmodium parasite is transmitted directly to humans through the Anopheles mosquito bite and causes vector-borne Malaria disease, which leads to the transmission of the disease in Southeast Asia, including India. The problem of persistent toxicity, along with the growing incidence of insect resistance, has led to the use of green pesticides to control the spread of the disease in a cost-effective and environment-friendly manner. Based on this objective, this work investigated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and ovicidal activity of Mentha pipertia using a natural nanoemulsion technique.

The impact of mosquito proof lids of underground tanks “tanka” on the breeding of Anopheles stephensi in a village in western Rajasthan, India

October 30, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Himmat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Kumar Vikram, Rekha Saxena and Amit Sharma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:412, 19 October 2021

Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the community practised having one large underground tank (locally known as the tanka) in their house to collect rainwater for long-term household use. Anopheles stephensi, one of the major malaria vectors, breeds in improperly covered "tankas” if not properly covered and harbours a vector population throughout the year.

Transient knockdown of Anopheles stephensi LRIM1 using RNAi increases Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite salivary gland infections

June 30, 2021 - 12:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Peter F. Billingsley, Kasim I. George, Abraham G. Eappen, Robert A. Harrell II, Robert Alford, Tao Li, Sumana Chakravarty, B. Kim Lee Sim, Stephen L. Hoffman and David A. O’Brochta
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:284, 26 June 2021

Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (PfSPZ) can be administered as a highly protective vaccine conferring the highest protection seen to date. Sanaria® PfSPZ vaccines are produced using aseptically reared Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. The bionomics of sporogonic development of P. falciparum in A. stephensi to fully mature salivary gland PfSPZ is thought to be modulated by several components of the mosquito innate immune system. In order to increase salivary gland PfSPZ infections in A. stephensi and thereby increase vaccine production efficiency, a gene knock down approach was used to investigate the activity of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway downstream effector leucine-rich repeat immune molecule 1 (LRIM1), an antagonist to Plasmodium development.

NOT Open Access | Are Dawn Collections of Anopheles stephensi a Better Method To Estimate the Resting Vector Density? A Study from Chennai, India

June 29, 2021 - 13:13 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NJA, Thomas S, Mathai MT, Eapen A
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 28:tpmd200822

The study was an attempt to capture Anopheles stephensi from cattle sheds during dawn to understand the realistic density of the resting mosquitoes. A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out in cattle sheds in close proximity to the human dwellings to collect the resting vector mosquitoes. The man-hour density of A. stephensi ranged from 24.7 to 206.5.

An update on the distribution, bionomics, and insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles stephensi in Ethiopia, 2018–2020

June 16, 2021 - 12:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Meshesha Balkew, Peter Mumba, Seth Irish, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:263, 9 June 2021

Anopheles stephensi, an invasive malaria vector, was first detected in Africa nearly 10 years ago. After the initial finding in Djibouti, it has subsequently been found in Ethiopia, Sudan and Somalia. To better inform policies and vector control decisions, it is important to understand the distribution, bionomics, insecticide susceptibility, and transmission potential of An. stephensi. These aspects were studied as part of routine entomological monitoring in Ethiopia between 2018 and 2020.

Intragenomic sequence variations in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi

June 15, 2021 - 15:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mishra S, Sharma G, Das MK, Pande V, Singh OP
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 14;16(6):e0253173

Second Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence is a widely used molecular marker for species-identification or -delimitation due to observed concerted evolution which is believed to homogenize rDNA copies in an interbreeding population. However, intra-specific differences in ITS2 of Anopheles stephensi have been reported.

Optimization of Plasmodium vivax sporozoite production from Anopheles stephensi in South West India

May 18, 2021 - 13:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ajeet Kumar Mohanty, Charles de Souza, Rapatbhorn Patrapuvich, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:221, 18 May 2021

Efforts to study the biology of Plasmodium vivax liver stages, particularly the latent hypnozoites, have been hampered by the limited availability of P. vivax sporozoites. Anopheles stephensi is a major urban malaria vector in Goa and elsewhere in South Asia. Using P. vivax patient blood samples, a series of standard membrane-feeding experiments were performed with An. stephensi under the US NIH International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) for Malaria Evolution in South Asia (MESA). The goal was to understand the dynamics of parasite development in mosquitoes as well as the production of P. vivax sporozoites. To obtain a robust supply of P. vivax sporozoites, mosquito-rearing and mosquito membrane-feeding techniques were optimized, which are described here.

NOT Open Access | Anopheles stephensi (Asian Malaria Mosquito)

April 20, 2021 - 15:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ishtiaq F, Swain S, Kumar SS
Reference: 
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Apr 14:S1471-4922(21)00061-1

Anopheles stephensi originated in Southeast Asia and the Arabian Peninsula. It has recently emerged as an efficient and invasive urban malaria vector. There are three known forms, 'type', 'intermediate', and 'mysorensis', of which the type and intermediate forms are efficient vectors in both rural and urban environments.

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals developmental heterogeneity among Plasmodium berghei sporozoites

February 25, 2021 - 09:49 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ruberto AA, Bourke C, Merienne N, Obadia T, Amino R, Mueller I
Reference: 
Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 22;11(1):4127

In the malaria-causing parasite's life cycle, Plasmodium sporozoites must travel from the midgut of a mosquito to the salivary glands before they can infect a mammalian host. However, only a fraction of sporozoites complete the journey. Since salivary gland invasion is required for transmission of sporozoites, insights at the molecular level can contribute to strategies for malaria prevention.

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