Plasmodium sporozoites are the highly motile forms of malaria-causing parasites that are transmitted by the mosquito to the vertebrate host. Sporozoites need to enter and cross several cellular and tissue barriers for which they employ a set of surface proteins. Three of these proteins are members of the thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP) family. Here, potential additive, synergistic or antagonistic roles of these adhesion proteins were investigated.
Overwhelming activation of T cells in acute malaria is associated with severe outcomes. Thus, counter-regulation by anti-inflammatory mechanisms is indispensable for an optimal resolution of disease. Using Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection of C57BL/6 mice, we performed a comprehensive analysis of co-inhibitory molecules expressed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using an unbiased cluster analysis approach. We identified similar T cell clusters co-expressing several co-inhibitory molecules like programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in the CD4+ and the CD8+ T cell compartment.
Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland in the breast and is typically due to bacterial infection. In malaria-endemic areas, mastitis with accompanying fever can be challenging to differentiate from malaria. At the same time, it is unclear whether malaria infection is directly involved in the development of mastitis. In the present study, whether mastitis develops during infection with malaria parasites was investigated using a rodent malaria model with Plasmodium berghei (P. berghei; Pb) ANKA. The course of parasitemia in postpartum mice infected with Pb ANKA was similar to the course in infected virgin mice.
Malaria remains one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical regions of the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it remains epidemiologically holoendemic. The absence of effective vaccines and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs have been the major challenges to malaria control measures. An alternative strategy could be the application of validated and standardized herbal formulations.
Efficient reverse genetics approaches are critical for the study of many organisms. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has led to a plethora of new tools for geneticists. Here, we successfully established a simplified CRISPR/Cas9 system for the malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. The homologous directed repair (HDR) template is provided as a linear template with homologous arms of 600-700bp while the CRISPR elements sgRNA and Cas9 are encoded from a single plasmid utilizing the Ribozyme-Guide-Ribozyme (RGR) expression strategy. Our approach eliminates the need for negative selection markers since the plasmid cannot be incorporated into the genome.
Sporozoite antigens are the basis of a number of malaria vaccines being tested, but the contribution of antigens expressed during subsequent liver stage development to pre-erythrocytic stage immunity is poorly understood.
Experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) is a severe complication of Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection in mice, characterised by CD8+ T cell accumulation within the brain. Whilst the dynamics of CD8+ T cell activation and migration during extant primary PbA infection have been extensively researched, the fate of the parasite-specific CD8+ T cells upon resolution of ECM are not understood. In this study we show that memory OT-I cells persist systemically within the spleen, lung and brain following recovery from ECM after primary PbA-OVA infection.
In the Plasmodium berghei ANKA mouse model of malaria, accumulation of CD8+ T cells and infected RBCs in the brain promotes the development of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). In this study, we used malaria-specific transgenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to track evolution of T cell immunity during the acute and memory phases of P. berghei ANKA infection.
Malaria is a parasitic lethal disease caused by Plasmodium protozoa. The resistance and drugs’ side effects have led to numerous researches for alternative suitable drugs with better efficiency and lower toxicity.
Genetically attenuated sporozoite vaccines can elicit long-lasting protection against malaria but pose risks of breakthrough infection. Chemoprophylaxis vaccination (CVac) has proven to be the most effective vaccine strategy against malaria.