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Plasmodium vivax

Not Open Access | Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in southeastern and western border areas of Myanmar

January 18, 2022 - 21:18 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Soe MT, Aung PL, Nyunt MH, Sein MM, Cho C, Yang Z, Menezes L, Parker DM, Kyaw MP, Cui L
Reference: 
Infection. 2022 Jan 16

In the Greater Mekong Subregion of Southeast Asia, Plasmodium vivax malaria is endemic and causes significant morbidity. In this study, the efficacy of chloroquine for treating uncomplicated P. vivax malaria at the eastern and western borders of Myanmar was investigated.

Methods

Structural basis of Plasmodium vivax inhibition by antibodies binding to the circumsporozoite protein repeats

January 18, 2022 - 21:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kucharska I, Hossain L, Ivanochko D, Yang Q, Rubinstein JL, Pomès R, Julien JP
Reference: 
Elife. 2022 Jan 13;11:e72908

Malaria is a global health burden, with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) responsible for the majority of infections worldwide. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the most abundant protein on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites, and antibodies targeting the central repeat region of CSP can prevent parasite infection. Although much has been uncovered about the molecular basis of antibody recognition of the PfCSP repeats, data remains scarce for PvCSP.

In vivo efficacy of anti-malarial drugs against clinical Plasmodium vivax malaria in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

January 12, 2022 - 23:09 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tsige Ketema, Ketema Bacha, Kefelegn Getahun and Quique Bassat
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:483, 24 December 2021

Ethiopia is one of the few countries in Africa where Plasmodium vivax commonly co-exists with Plasmodium falciparum, and which accounts for ~ 40% of the total number of malaria infections in the country. Regardless of the growing evidence over many decades of decreasing sensitivity of this parasite to different anti-malarial drugs, there has been no comprehensive attempt made to systematically review and meta-analyse the efficacy of different anti-malarial drugs against P. vivax in the country. However, outlining the efficacy of available anti-malarial drugs against this parasite is essential to guide recommendations for the optimal therapeutic strategy to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to synthesize evidence on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs against clinical P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia.

How radical is radical cure? Site-specific biases in clinical trials underestimate the effect of radical cure on Plasmodium vivax hypnozoites

January 12, 2022 - 22:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
John H. Huber, Cristian Koepfli, Guido España, Narimane Nekkab, Michael T. White and T. Alex Perkins
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:479, 20 December 2021

Plasmodium vivax blood-stage relapses originating from re-activating hypnozoites are a major barrier for control and elimination of this disease. Radical cure is a form of therapy capable of addressing this problem. Recent clinical trials of radical cure have yielded efficacy estimates ranging from 65 to 94%, with substantial variation across trial sites.

The presence of circulating antibody secreting cells and long-lived memory B cell responses to reticulocyte binding protein 1a in Plasmodium vivax patients

January 5, 2022 - 23:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Piyawan Kochayoo, Pattarawan Sanguansuttikul, Pongsakorn Thawornpan, Kittikorn Wangriatisak, John H. Adams, Francis B. Ntumngia and Patchanee Chootong
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:474, 20 December 2021

Development of an effective vaccine against blood-stage malaria requires the induction of long-term immune responses. Plasmodium vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein 1a (PvRBP1a) is a blood-stage parasite antigen which is associated with invasion of red blood cells and induces antibody responses. Thus, PvRBP1a is considered as a target for design of a blood-stage vaccine against vivax malaria.

Serological responses to a soluble recombinant circumsporozoite protein-VK210 of Plasmodium vivax (rPvCSP-VK210) among Iranian malaria patients

December 1, 2021 - 20:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Nateghpour M, Etemadi S, Motevalli Haghi A, Eslami H, Mohebali M, Farivar L
Reference: 
Eur J Med Res. 2021 Nov 25;26(1):134

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) has a central immune domain that includes short regions of repeating amino acid sequences. This immunodynamic region is an epitope of B cells that can elicit an immune response in human and laboratory animals. The aim of the present study was to express the recombinant PvCSP-VK210 antigen and evaluate it for assaying antibodies obtained during human P. vivax infection by Western blotting and indirect ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay).

Malaria Trigram: improving the visualization of recurrence data for malaria elimination

November 20, 2021 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:431, 30 October 2021

Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite can be noted. Recurrences in P. vivax malaria cases are due to new mosquito-bite infections, drug resistance or especially from relapses arising from hypnozoites. As such, new innovative surveillance strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop an infographic visualization tool to improve individual-level malaria surveillance focused on malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon.

Not Open Access | Plasmodium vivax gametocytes and transmission

November 10, 2021 - 21:00 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bantuchai S, Imad H, Nguitragool W
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Nov 5:102497

Malaria elimination means cessation of parasite transmission. At present, the declining malaria incidence in many countries has made elimination a feasible goal. Transmission control has thus been placed at the center of the national malaria control programs. The efficient transmission of Plasmodium vivax from humans to mosquitoes is a key factor that helps perpetuate malaria in endemic areas.

Serology for plasmodium vivax surveillance: A novel approach to accelerate towards elimination

November 5, 2021 - 13:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tayipto Y, Liu Z, Mueller I, Longley RJ
Reference: 
Parasitol Int. 2021 Oct 30:102492

Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread causative agent of human malaria in the world. Despite the ongoing implementation of malaria control programs, the rate of case reduction has declined over the last 5 years. Hence, surveillance of malaria transmission should be in place to identify and monitor areas that require intensified malaria control interventions.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon: Submicroscopic parasitemic blood infects Nyssorhynchus darlingi

November 4, 2021 - 12:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Almeida GG, Costa PAC, Gazzinelli RT, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Oct 29;15(10):e0009077

Individuals with asymptomatic infection due to Plasmodium vivax are posited to be important reservoirs of malaria transmission in endemic regions. Here we studied a cohort of P. vivax malaria patients in a suburban area in the Brazilian Amazon. Overall 1,120 individuals were screened for P. vivax infection and 108 (9.6%) had parasitemia detected by qPCR but not by microscopy. Asymptomatic individuals had higher levels of antibodies against P. vivax and similar hematological and biochemical parameters compared to uninfected controls.

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