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Avian haemosporidian parasites of accipitriform raptors

January 19, 2022 - 20:36 -- Open Access
Josef Harl, Tanja Himmel, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Nora Nedorost, Julia Matt, Anna Kübber-Heiss, Amer Alic, Cornelia Konicek and Herbert Weissenböck
Malaria Journal 2022 21:14, 5 January 2022

The order Accipitriformes comprises the largest group of birds of prey with 260 species in four families. So far, 21 haemosporidian parasite species have been described from or reported to occur in accipitriform birds. Only five of these parasite species have been characterized molecular genetically. The first part of this study involved molecular genetic screening of accipitriform raptors from Austria and Bosnia-Herzegovina and the first chromogenic in situ hybridization approach targeting parasites in this host group.

Not Open Access | Willingness to pay for a hypothetical malaria vaccine in Brazil: a cross-sectional study and the implications

January 18, 2022 - 20:45 -- NOT Open Access
Labis da Costa MJ, Nascimento GC, Athie TS, Sales Silva J, Reis EA, Martin AP, Godman B, Dias Godói IP
J Comp Eff Res. 2022 Jan 14

Malaria is an infection caused by protozoa of genus Plasmodium, considered the one associated with increasingly large outbreaks.

Haematological response in experimental human Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria

January 5, 2022 - 23:07 -- Open Access
Stephen D. Woolley, Louise Marquart, John Woodford, Stephan Chalon, Joerg J. Moehrle, James S. McCarthy and Bridget E. Barber
Malaria Journal 2021 20:470, 20 December 2021

Malaria-associated anaemia, arising from symptomatic, asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections, is a significant cause of morbidity worldwide. Induced blood stage malaria volunteer infection studies (IBSM-VIS) provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the haematological response to early Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection.

Household and individual level risk factors associated with declining malaria incidence in Meghalaya, India: implications for malaria elimination in low-endemic settings

December 28, 2021 - 21:06 -- Open Access
Rajiv Sarkar, Anne Kessler, Bandapkupar Mawkhlieng, Steven A. Sullivan, Mark L. Wilson, Jane M. Carlton and Sandra Albert
Malaria Journal 2021 20:460, 11 December 2021

A detailed analysis of household and individual level Plasmodium infection patterns in two low-endemic districts of Meghalaya was undertaken to better understand the epidemiology of malaria in northeast India.

Immunomodulation by Mosquito Salivary Protein AgSAP Contributes to Early Host Infection by Plasmodium

December 28, 2021 - 20:52 -- Open Access
Arora G, Sajid A, Chuang YM, Dong Y, Gupta A, Gambardella K, DePonte K, Almeras L, Dimopolous G, Fikrig E
mBio. 2021 Dec 21;12(6):e0309121

Malaria is caused when Plasmodium sporozoites are injected along with saliva by an anopheline mosquito into the dermis of a vertebrate host. Arthropod saliva has pleiotropic effects that can influence local host responses, pathogen transmission, and exacerbation of the disease. A mass spectrometry screen identified mosquito salivary proteins that are associated with Plasmodium sporozoites during saliva secretions. In this study, we demonstrate that one of these salivary antigens, Anopheles gambiae sporozoite-associated protein (AgSAP), interacts directly with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei sporozoites.

NOT Open Access | Recent contributions of quinolines to antimalarial and anticancer drug discovery research

December 27, 2021 - 10:38 -- NOT Open Access
Van de Walle T, Cools L, Mangelinckx S, D'hooghe M
Eur J Med Chem. 2021 Dec 15;226:113865

Quinoline, a privileged scaffold in medicinal chemistry, has always been associated with a multitude of biological activities. Especially in antimalarial and anticancer research, quinoline played (and still plays) a central role, giving rise to the development of an array of quinoline-containing pharmaceuticals in these therapeutic areas. However, both diseases still affect millions of people every year, pointing to the necessity of new therapies.

Analysis of pir gene expression across the Plasmodium life cycle

December 15, 2021 - 21:14 -- Open Access
Timothy S. Little, Deirdre A. Cunningham, Jean Langhorne, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:445, 25 November 2021

Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) is the largest multigene family in the genomes of most Plasmodium species. A variety of functions for the PIR proteins which they encode have been proposed, including antigenic variation, immune evasion, sequestration and rosetting. However, direct evidence for these is lacking. The repetitive nature of the family has made it difficult to determine function experimentally. However, there has been some success in using gene expression studies to suggest roles for some members in virulence and chronic infection.

NOT Open Access | Exploring potential of Plasmodium RUVBL proteins as anti-malarial drug target

December 14, 2021 - 20:51 -- NOT Open Access
Khurana J, Shrivastava A, Singh A, Gupta A
J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2021 Dec 8:1-17

Although malaria related cases and deaths have consistently declined over time, growing resistance to existing anti-malarial drugs in Plasmodium remains a matter of extreme concern. Since we rely so heavily on use of chemotherapy for malaria treatment and knowing that all the available anti-malarial drug will become virtually useless in the near future, we have to increase our understanding of basic biology of the parasite as well as characterize new molecular targets that can be exploited for anti-malarial therapy. In the present study, PfRUVBLs (AAA family member proteins) were evaluated for their potential as novel anti-malarial drug target candidates, using computational approaches.

Artemisinin-independent inhibitory activity of Artemisia sp. infusions against different Plasmodium stages including relapse-causing hypnozoites

December 11, 2021 - 21:47 -- Open Access
Ashraf K, Tajeri S, Mazier D, et al.
Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Dec 2;5(3):e202101237

Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) are the frontline treatments against malaria worldwide. Recently the use of traditional infusions from Artemisia annua (from which artemisinin is obtained) or Artemisia afra (lacking artemisinin) has been controversially advocated. Such unregulated plant-based remedies are strongly discouraged as they might constitute sub-optimal therapies and promote drug resistance.

NOT Open Access | Derivatives of Dictyostelium differentiation-inducing factors suppress the growth of Plasmodium parasites in vitro and in vivo

December 11, 2021 - 21:45 -- NOT Open Access
Mita T, Hirai M, Maki Y, Nahar S, Yoshida N, Oshima Y, Kikuchi H, Kubohara Y
Biochem Pharmacol. 2021 Dec;194:114834

Malaria, which is caused by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, remains a major endemic public health problem worldwide. Since artemisinin combination therapies are used as a first-line treatment in all endemic regions, the emergence of parasites resistant to these regimens has become a serious problem. Differentiation-inducing factor 1 (DIF-1) is a chlorinated alkylphenone originally found in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum.


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