There is a shift in antimalarial drug discovery from phenotypic screening toward target-based approaches, as more potential drug targets are being validated in Plasmodium species. Given the high attrition rate and high cost of drug discovery, it is important to select the targets most likely to deliver progressible drug candidates. In this paper, we describe the criteria that we consider important for selecting targets for antimalarial drug discovery.
Military conflicts have been significant obstacles in detecting and treating infectious disease diseases due to the diminished public health infrastructure, resulting in malaria endemicity. A variety of violent and destructive incidents were experienced by FATA (Federally Administered Tribal Areas). It was a struggle to pursue an epidemiological analysis due to continuing conflict and Talibanization. Clinical isolates were collected from Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai agencies from May 2017 to May 2018. For Giemsa staining, full blood EDTA blood samples have been collected from symptomatic participants
Malaria is one of the largest diseases affecting tropical and subtropical regions, with more than 200 million cases and between 400,000 and 500,000 deaths annually, disproportionately afflicting the young, elderly, or immune compromised (1, 2). Infamously spread by infected mosquitoes, the disease is caused by several parasitic species of Plasmodium (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. knowlesi).
Literature data on toucans haemosporidians are scarce and all reports come from investigations in Brazil. Muniz et al. (Rev Bras Malariol 3: 339-356, Muniz et al., Rev Bras Malariol 3:339-356, 1951) and Muniz and Soares (Rev Bras Malar 611-617, Muniz J, Soares R de RL (1954) Nota sôbre um parasita do gênero Plasmodium encontrado no Ramphastos toco Müller, 1776, "Tucano-Açu", e diferente do Plasmodium huffi: Plasmodium pinottii n. sp. Rev Bras Malar 611 - 617.) described two Plasmodium species, P. huffi and P. pinottii, in Ramphastos toco. Later, Manwell and Sessler (J Protozol 18: 570-574, Manwell and Sessler, Malaria Parasites of Toucans J Protozol 18:570-574, 1971) established a new subspecies, P. nucleophilum toucani.
The entry of PCR-based techniques into malaria diagnostics has improved the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of Plasmodium infections. It has been shown that humans are regularly infected by at least six different Plasmodium species. The MC004 real-time PCR assay for malaria diagnosis is a novel single-tube assay that has been developed for the purpose of simultaneously detecting all Plasmodium species known to infect humans, and discrimination between Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale wallikeri, Plasmodium ovale curtisi, Plasmodium knowlesi (including differentiation of three strains) and Plasmodium cynomolgi (including differentiation of three strains). Detection and identification of Plasmodium species relies on molecular beacon probe-based melting curve analysis. In addition, this assay might be used to quantify the parasitaemia of at least P. falciparum by calculating the level of parasitaemia directly from the Cq-value.
Malaria remains one of the deadliest diseases on the planet, infecting an estimated 229 million individuals in 2019 with more than 400,000 associated deaths, primarily in young children and pregnant women. Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasite infection of the liver and blood, with P. falciparum accounting for the vast majority of deaths.
Both capillary and venous blood samples have been interchangeably used for the diagnosis of malaria in Ethiopia. However, Plasmodium parasites are thought to be more concentrated in capillary than in venous blood. Hence, selecting a sample source where parasites are more concentrated is indispensable approach in order to maximize the accuracy of blood film microscopy. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare the detection rate and the parasitemia level of Plasmodium species from conventional capillary and venous blood films, and buffy coat preparations.
Proteins containing WD40 domains play important roles in the formation of multiprotein complexes. Little is known about WD40 proteins in the malaria parasite. This report contains the initial description of a WD40 protein that is unique to the genus Plasmodium and possibly closely related genera. The N-terminal portion of this protein consists of seven WD40 repeats that are highly conserved in all Plasmodium species.
In Ethiopia, anti-malaria treatment is initiated after parasitological confirmation using blood film microscopy at health centers and hospitals, or serological rapid diagnostic tests at health posts. At health posts, the diagnosis is performed by health extension workers using rapid diagnostic tests after little training. However, there is paucity of data about the health extension workers’ performance on rapid diagnostic tests. Hence, periodic monitoring of the performances of health extension workers on malaria rapid diagnostic tests and predicted factors plays a pivotal role for the control of malaria.
Heterogeneity and focalization are the most common epidemiological characteristics of endemic countries in the Americas, where malaria transmission is moderate and low. During malaria elimination, the first step is to perform a risk stratification exercise to prioritize interventions. This study aimed to identify malaria risk strata in the ecoepidemiological regions of Colombia.