Anopheles arabiensis is a member of Anopheles gambiae complex and the main malaria vector in Sudan. There is insufficient population genetics data available on An. arabiensis for an understanding of vector population structure and genetics, which are important for the malaria vector control programmes in this country. The objective of this investigation is to study the population structure, gene flow and isolation by distance among An. arabiensis populations for developing control strategies.
Due to the lack of vaccines, malaria control mainly involves the control of anopheline vectors (Anopheles spp.) using chemical insecticides. However, the prolonged and indiscriminate use of these compounds has led to the emergence of resistance in Anopheles populations in Africa. Insecticide resistance surveillance programs are less frequent in Cabo Verde than in other African countries. This study aimed to investigate the circulation of the L1014F and L1014S alleles in natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis collected from two sampling sites in the city of Praia, Cabo Verde.
The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of increasing concern in Ethiopia because of its potential implications for vector control failure. To better elucidate the specificity of resistance mechanisms and to facilitate the design of control strategies that minimize the likelihood of selecting for cross-resistance, a whole transcriptomic approach was used to explore gene expression patterns in a multi-insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Oromia Region, Ethiopia.
In characterizing malaria epidemiology, measuring mosquito infectiousness informs the entomological inoculation rate, an important metric of malaria transmission. PCR-based methods have been touted as more sensitive than the current “gold-standard” circumsporozoite (CSP) ELISA. Wider application of PCR-based methods has been limited by lack of specificity for the infectious sporozoite stage. We compared a PCR method for detecting the parasite’s mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome oxidase I (COX-I) gene with ELISA for detecting circumsporozoite protein for identification of different life stages of the parasite during development within a mosquito.
The magnitude and functional patterns of intraspecific transcriptional variation in the anophelines, including those of sex-biased genes underlying sex-specific traits relevant for malaria transmission, remain understudied. As a result, how changes in expression levels drive adaptation in these species is poorly understood. We sequenced the female, male, and larval transcriptomes of three populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Burkina Faso.
Malaria control primarily depends on two vector control strategies: indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs). Both IRS and LLIN target indoor-biting mosquitoes. However, some of the most important malaria vectors have developed resistance against the chemical compounds used in IRS and LLINs. Insecticide-induced behavioural changes in vectors, such as increased outdoor feeding on cattle and other animals, also limit the effectiveness of these strategies. Novel vector control strategies must therefore be found to complement IRS and LLINs. A promising tool is the use of cattle-applied endectocides. Endectocides are broad-spectrum systemic drugs that are effective against a range of internal nematodes parasites and blood-feeding arthropods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis.
Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.
Anopheles arabiensis is an opportunistic malaria vector that rests and feeds outdoors, circumventing current indoor vector control methods. Furthermore, this vector will readily feed on both animals and humans. Targeting this vector while feeding on animals can provide an additional intervention for the current vector control activities. Previous results have displayed the efficacy of using Subolesin/Akirin ortholog vaccines for the control of multiple ectoparasite infestations. This made Akirin a potential antigen for vaccine development against An. arabiensis.
Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector, recently implicated as contributing to ongoing residual malaria transmission in South Africa, which feeds and rests both indoors and outdoors. This species is, therefore, not effectively targeted using core malaria vector control interventions alone. Additionally, increasing resistance to available insecticides necessitates investigations into complementary non-insecticide-based vector control methods for outdoor-resting mosquitoes. The feasibility of the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a complementary vector control intervention is being investigated in South Africa. Successful implementation of an SIT programme largely depends on inundating a target insect population with sterilized laboratory-bred males. Therefore, knowledge of the native population size and dispersal ability of released sterile laboratory-reared males is critical. In this study, we estimated the male An. arabiensis population size and the dispersal of released males in an area targeted for a pilot sterile male release programme.
Chemical control has been the most efficient method in mosquito control, the development of insecticide resistance in target populations has a significant impact on vector control. The use of agricultural pesticides may have a profound impact on the development of resistance in the field populations of malaria vectors. Our study focused on insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) of Anopheles arabiensis populations from Northern Sudan, related to agricultural pesticide usage.