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anopheles funestus

Larval ecology and bionomics of Anopheles funestus in highland and lowland sites in western Kenya

October 16, 2021 - 12:24 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Debrah I, Afrane YA, Yan G, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Oct 11;16(10):e0255321

An. funestus is a major Afrotropical vector of human malaria. This study sought to investigate the larval ecology, sporozoite infection rates and blood meal sources of An. funestus in western Kenya.

NOT Open Access | The cytochrome P450 CYP325A is a major driver of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Central Africa

September 23, 2021 - 07:55 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Wamba ANR, Ibrahim SS, Kusimo MO, Muhammad A, Mugenzi LMJ, Irving H, Wondji MJ, Hearn J, Bigoga JD, Wondji CS
Reference: 
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Sep 14;138:103647

The overexpression and overactivity of key cytochrome P450s (CYP450) genes are major drivers of metabolic resistance to insecticides in African malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus s.s. Previous RNAseq-based transcription analyses revealed elevated expression of CYP325A specific to Central African populations but its role in conferring resistance has not previously been demonstrated. In this study, RT-qPCR consistently confirmed that CYP325A is highly over-expressed in pyrethroid-resistant An. funestus from Cameroon, compared with a control strain and insecticide-unexposed mosquitoes.

Efficacy of interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide mixture net treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin against Anopheles funestus: experimental hut trials in north-eastern Tanzania

April 14, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Elisante Michael, Wema Sudi, William W. Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:180, 9 April 2021

The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.

Fitness characteristics of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus during an attempted laboratory colonization

March 18, 2021 - 09:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Halfan S. Ngowo, Emmanuel E. Hape, Jason Matthiopoulos, Heather M. Ferguson and Fredros O. Okumu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:148, 12 March 2021

The malaria vector Anopheles funestus is increasingly recognized as a dominant vector of residual transmission in many African settings. Efforts to better understand its biology and control are significantly impeded by the difficulties of colonizing it under laboratory conditions. To identify key bottlenecks in colonization, this study compared the development and fitness characteristics of wild An. funestus from Tanzania (FUTAZ) and their F1 offspring during colonization attempts. The demography and reproductive success of wild FUTAZ offspring were compared to that of individuals from one of the only An. funestus strains that has been successfully colonized (FUMOZ, from Mozambique) under similar laboratory conditions.

Investigation of DDT resistance mechanisms in Anopheles funestus populations from northern and southern Benin reveals a key role of the GSTe2 gene

December 23, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Genevieve M. Tchigossou, Seun M. Atoyebi, Romaric Akoton, Eric Tossou, Djegbe Innocent, Jacob Riveron, Helen Irving, Akadiri Yessoufou, Charles Wondji and Rousseau Djouaka
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:456, 17 December 2020

Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquito, such as Anopheles funestus, is an important step in developing strategies to mitigate the resistance problem. This study aims to assess the role of the GSTe2 gene in DDT resistance and determine the genetic diversity of this gene in An. funestus.

Influence of a Major Mountainous Landscape Barrier (Mount Cameroon) on the Spread of Metabolic (GSTe2) and Target-Site (Rdl) Resistance Alleles in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus

December 16, 2020 - 12:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Amvongo-Adjia N, Riveron JM, Njiokou F, Wanji S, Wondji CS
Reference: 
Genes (Basel). 2020 Dec 11;11(12):E1492

Increased levels of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based control programmes. Understanding the landscape features impacting the spread of resistance makers is necessary to design suitable resistance management strategies. Here, we examined the influence of the highest mountain in West Africa (Mount Cameroon; 4095 m elevation) on the spread of metabolic and target-site resistance alleles in An. funestus populations.

A differential expression of pyrethroid resistance genes in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus across Uganda is associated with patterns of gene flow

November 11, 2020 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sandeu MM, Mulamba C, Weedall GD, Wondji CS
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Nov 10;15(11):e0240743

Insecticide resistance is challenging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control interventions to reduce malaria burden in Africa. Understanding the molecular basis of insecticides resistance and patterns of gene flow in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus are important steps for designing effective resistance management strategies. Here, we investigated the association between patterns of genetic structure and expression profiles of genes involved in the pyrethroid resistance in An. funestus across Uganda and neighboring Kenya.

CYP6P9-Driven Signatures of Selective Sweep of Metabolic Resistance to Pyrethroids in the Malaria Vector Anopheles funestus Reveal Contemporary Barriers to Gene Flow

November 10, 2020 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Djuicy DD, Hearn J, Tchouakui M, Wondji MJ, Irving H, Okumu FO, Wondji CS
Reference: 
Genes (Basel). 2020 Nov 5;11(11):E1314

Pyrethroid resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threatens malaria control efforts in Africa. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolic resistance is best understood for CYP6P9 genes in southern Africa in An. funestus. However, we do not know if this resistance mechanism is spreading across Africa and how it relates to broader patterns of gene flow across the continent.

Malaria vector species composition and entomological indices following indoor residual spraying in regions bordering Lake Victoria, Tanzania

October 31, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Charles Kakilla, Alphaxard Manjurano, Stephen M. Magesa, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:383, 28 October 2020

Vector control through long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and focal indoor residual spraying (IRS) is a major component of the Tanzania national malaria control strategy. In mainland Tanzania, IRS has been conducted annually around Lake Victoria basin since 2007. Due to pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, use of pyrethroids for IRS was phased out and from 2014 to 2017 pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) was sprayed in regions of Kagera, Geita, Mwanza, and Mara. Entomological surveillance was conducted in 10 sprayed and 4 unsprayed sites to determine the impact of IRS on entomological indices related to malaria transmission risk.

Not Open Access | A 6.5kb intergenic structural variation enhances P450-mediated resistance to pyrethroids in malaria vectors lowering bed net efficacy

September 29, 2020 - 13:15 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mugenzi LMJ, Menze BD, Wondji CS, et al.
Reference: 
Mol Ecol. 2020 Sep 24

Elucidating the complex evolutionary armory that mosquitoes deploy against insecticides is crucial to maintain the effectiveness of insecticide-based interventions. Here, we deciphered the role of a 6.5kb structural variation (SV) in driving cytochrome P450-mediated pyrethroid resistance in the malaria vector, Anopheles funestus. Whole-genome pooled sequencing detected an intergenic 6.5kb SV between duplicated CYP6P9a/b P450s in pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes through a translocation event.

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