Novel hydrazone derivatives 10a-m were prepared from N-Amino-11-azaartemisinin (9) and screened for their antimalarial activity by oral and intramuscular (i.m.) routes against multidrug-resistant Plasmodium yoelii in Swiss mice model. Several of the hydrazone derivatives showed higher order of antimalarial activity. Compounds 10b, 10g, 10m provided 100% protection to the infected mice at the dose of 24 mg/kg × 4 days via oral route.
Plasmodium, the causative agents of malaria, are obligate intracellular organisms. In humans, pathogenesis is caused by the blood stage parasite, which multiplies within erythrocytes, thus erythrocyte invasion is an essential developmental step. Merozoite form parasites released into the blood stream coordinately secrets a panel of proteins from the microneme secretory organelles for gliding motility, establishment of a tight junction with a target naive erythrocyte, and subsequent internalization. A protein identified in Toxoplasma gondii facilitates microneme fusion with the plasma membrane for exocytosis; namely, acylated pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein (APH). To obtain insight into the differential microneme discharge by malaria parasites, in this study we analyzed the consequences of APH deletion in the rodent malaria model, Plasmodium yoelii, using a DiCre-based inducible knockout method.
Malaria remains a grave concern for humans, as effective medical countermeasures for Plasmodium infection have yet to be developed. Phagocytic clearance of parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs) by macrophages is an important front-line innate host defense against Plasmodium infection. We previously showed that repeated injections of low-dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) prior to bacterial infection, called LPS preconditioning, strongly augmented phagocytic/bactericidal activity in murine macrophages. However, if LPS preconditioning prevents murine Plasmodium infection is unclear.
Malaria remains a heavy global burden on human health, and it is important to understand the molecular and cellular biology of the parasite to find targets for drug and vaccine development. The mouse malaria model is an essential tool to characterize the function of identified molecules; however, robust technologies for targeted gene deletions are still poorly developed for the widely used rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii.
Both subunit and attenuated whole-sporozoite vaccination strategies against Plasmodium infection have shown promising initial results in malaria-naive westerners but less efficacy in malaria-exposed individuals in endemic areas. Here, we demonstrate proof of concept by using a rodent malaria model in which non-neutralizing antibodies (nNAbs) can directly interfere with protective anti-circumsporozoite protein (CSP) humoral responses.
Pre-erythrocytic vaccines prevent malaria by targeting parasites in the clinically silent sporozoite and liver stages and preventing progression to the virulent blood stages. The leading pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S/AS01E (Mosquirix®) entered implementation programs in 2019 and targets the major sporozoite surface antigen called circumsporozoite protein or CSP.
Malaria parasites are known to be vulnerable to oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of the administration of α-tocopheryloxy acetic acid (α-TEA), which is a vitamin E analogue mitocan, on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice were examined.
Malaria affects more than 200 million people annually around the world, killing a child every 2 min. Artemether (ART) and lumefantrine (LUM) are the gold standard choice to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, they are hydrophobic compounds with low oral bioavailability. Microneedle (MN) arrays consist of micron-sized needles on one side of a supporting base and have the ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally invasive way, creating temporary channels through which drugs can diffuse, including those with poor water solubility.
Rodent malaria parasites are important models for studying host-malaria parasite interactions such as host immune response, mechanisms of parasite evasion of host killing, and vaccine development. One of the rodent malaria parasites is Plasmodium yoelii, and multiple P. yoelii strains or subspecies that cause different disease phenotypes have been widely employed in various studies. The genomes and transcriptomes of several P. yoelii strains have been analyzed and annotated, including the lethal strains of P. y. yoelii YM (or 17XL) and non-lethal strains of P. y. yoelii 17XNL/17X. Genomic DNA sequences and cDNA reads from another subspecies P. y. nigeriensis N67 have been reported for studies of genetic polymorphisms and parasite response to drugs, but its genome has not been assembled and annotated.
Malaria has high morbidity and mortality rates in some parts of tropical and subtropical countries. Besides respiratory and metabolic function, lung plays a role in immune system. γδT cells have multiple functions in producing cytokines and chemokines, regulating the immune response by interacting with other cells. It remains unclear about the role of γδT cells in the lung of mice infected by malaria parasites.