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A whole transcriptomic approach provides novel insights into the molecular basis of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia

September 29, 2021 - 10:13 -- Open Access
Messenger LA, Impoinvil LM, Derilus D, Yewhalaw D, Irish S, Lenhart A.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Sep 22:103655

The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of increasing concern in Ethiopia because of its potential implications for vector control failure. To better elucidate the specificity of resistance mechanisms and to facilitate the design of control strategies that minimize the likelihood of selecting for cross-resistance, a whole transcriptomic approach was used to explore gene expression patterns in a multi-insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

Transcriptomic analysis reveals pronounced changes in gene expression due to sub-lethal pyrethroid exposure and ageing in insecticide resistance Anopheles coluzzii

May 12, 2021 - 09:15 -- Open Access
Ingham VA, Brown F, Ranson H
BMC Genomics. 2021 May 10;22(1):337

Malaria control is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides that target and kill the adult female Anopheline vector. The intensive use of insecticides of the pyrethroid class has led to widespread resistance in mosquito populations. The intensity of pyrethroid resistance in some settings in Africa means mosquitoes can contact bednets treated with this insecticide class multiple times with minimal mortality effects. Furthermore, both ageing and diel cycle have been shown to have large impacts on the resistance phenotype. Together, these traits may affect other aspects of vector biology controlling the vectorial capacity or fitness of the mosquito.

Sub-lethal aquatic doses of pyriproxyfen may increase pyrethroid resistance in malaria mosquitoes

March 23, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Opiyo MA, Ngowo HS, Mapua SA, Mpingwa M, Nchimbi N, Matowo NS, Majambere S, Okumu FO
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 18;16(3):e0248538

Pyriproxyfen (PPF), an insect growth hormone mimic is widely used as a larvicide and in some second-generation bed nets, where it is combined with pyrethroids to improve impact. It has also been evaluated as a candidate for auto-dissemination by adult mosquitoes to control Aedes and Anopheles species. We examined whether PPF added to larval habitats of pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors can modulate levels of resistance among emergent adult mosquitoes.

NOT Open Access | The genetic architecture of target-site resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

February 16, 2021 - 15:46 -- NOT Open Access
Clarkson CS, Miles A, Harding NJ, O'Reilly AO, Weetman D, Kwiatkowski D, Donnelly MJ
Mol Ecol. 2021 Feb 16

Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides is a major concern for malaria vector control. Pyrethroids target the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC), an essential compo nent of the mosquito nervous system. Substitutions in the amino acid sequence can inducing a resistance phenotype. We use whole-genome sequence data from phase 2 of the Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Project (Ag1000G) to provide a comprehensive account of genetic variation in the Vgsc gene across 13 African countries. In addition to known resistance alleles, we describe 20 other non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions at appreciable population frequency, and map these variants onto a protein model to investigate the likelihood of a pyrethroid resistance phenotypes.

NOT Open Access | Synthesis, anti-mosquito activities, photodegradation and toxic assessment of novel pyrethroids containing 2-chlorobiphenyl and 2-chlorophenylpyridine

February 2, 2021 - 16:20 -- NOT Open Access
Yang Y, Zhu Q, Zhang K, Zhao S
Pest Manag Sci. 2021 Jan 29

Aedes albopictus is a mosquito species and a vector of dengue virus and malaria parasites that represents a significant threat to global public health. Although mosquito populations have been effectively controlled through the use of synthetic insecticides, the emergence of widespread insecticide resistance in wild mosquito populations is a strong motivation to explore new insecticidal chemistries.

Reduced long-lasting insecticidal net efficacy and pyrethroid insecticide resistance are associated with over-expression of CYP6P4, CYP6P3 and CYP6Z1 in populations of Anopheles coluzzii from South-East Côte d'Ivoire

November 12, 2020 - 15:38 -- Open Access
Meiwald A, Clark E, Kristan M, Edi C, Jeffries CL, Pelloquin B, Irish SR, Walker T, Messenger LA
J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 11:jiaa699

Resistance to major public health insecticides in Côte d’Ivoire has intensified and now threatens the long-term effectiveness of malaria vector control interventions.

Not Open Access | A deltamethrin crystal polymorph for more effective malaria control

October 14, 2020 - 12:31 -- NOT Open Access
Yang J, Erriah B, Hu CT, Reiter E, Zhu X, López-Mejías V, Carmona-Sepúlveda IP, Ward MD, Kahr B
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Oct 12:202013390

Pyrethroid contact insecticides are mainstays of malaria control, but their efficacies are declining due to widespread insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquito populations, a major public health challenge. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome this challenge, including insecticides with new modes of action. New insecticides, however, can be expensive to implement in low-income countries.

Absence of knockdown mutations in pyrethroid and DDT resistant populations of the main malaria vectors in Colombia

December 9, 2019 - 15:35 -- Open Access
Lorena I. Orjuela, Diego A. Álvarez-Diaz, Juliana A. Morales, Nelson Grisales, Martha L. Ahumada, Juan Venegas H, Martha L. Quiñones and María F. Yasnot
Malaria Journal 2019 18:384, 2 December 2019

Knockdown resistance (kdr) is a well-characterized target-site insecticide resistance mechanism that is associated with DDT and pyrethroid resistance. Even though insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT have been reported in Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles benarrochi sensu lato (s.l.), Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., and Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l. malaria vectors in Latin America, there is a knowledge gap on the role that kdr resistance mechanisms play in this resistance. The aim of this study was to establish the role that kdr mechanisms play in pyrethroid and DDT resistance in the main malaria vectors in Colombia, in addition to previously reported metabolic resistance mechanisms, such as mixed function oxidases (MFO) and nonspecific esterases (NSE) enzyme families.

Dynamics of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors in southern Benin following a large scale implementation of vector control interventions

July 11, 2016 - 15:31 -- Open Access
Yahouédo G, Cornelie S, Djègbè I, Ahlonsou J, Aboubakar S, Soares C, Akogbéto M, Corbel V
Parasites & Vectors 2016, 9:385 (4 July 2016)

The study confirmed that deltamethrin resistance is widespread in malaria vectors in Southern Benin. We suspect that the increase in deltamethrin resistance between 2012 and 2014 resulted from an increased expression of metabolic detoxification genes (CYP6M2 and CYP6P3) rather than from kdr mutations. 

Knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in Indian Anopheles culicifacies populations

June 24, 2015 - 15:40 -- Open Access
Dykes C, Kushwah R, Das M, Sharma S, Bhatt R, Veer V, Agrawal O, Adak T, Singh O
Parasites & Vectors 2015, 8 :333 (18 June 2015)

This vector is resistant to DDT in most parts of the country with indication of emerging resistance to pyrethroids. Since knockdown resistance (kdr) is known to confer cross-resistance between DDT and pyrethroids owing to a common target site of action, knowledge of prevalence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles is important from insecticide resistance management point of view.


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