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Asia

Population-specific adaptation in malaria-endemic regions of Asia

November 13, 2021 - 10:30 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Gusareva ES, Lorenzini PA, Ramli NAB, Ghosh AG, Kim HL
Reference: 
J Bioinform Comput Biol. 2021 Nov 10:2140006

Evolutionary mechanisms of adaptation to malaria are understudied in Asian endemic regions despite a high prevalence of malaria in the region. In our research, we performed a genome-wide screening for footprints of natural selection against malaria by comparing eight Asian population groups from malaria-endemic regions with two non-endemic population groups from Europe and Mongolia.

Global diversity of the gene encoding the Pfs25 protein-a Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine candidate

November 13, 2021 - 10:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Sookpongthai P, Utayopas K, Sitthiyotha T, Pengsakul T, Kaewthamasorn M, Wangkanont K, Harnyuttanakorn P, Chunsrivirot S, Pattaradilokrat S
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Nov 8;14(1):571

Vaccines against the sexual stages of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum are indispensable for controlling malaria and abrogating the spread of drug-resistant parasites. Pfs25, a surface antigen of the sexual stage of P. falciparum, is a leading candidate for transmission-blocking vaccine development. While clinical trials have reported that Pfs25-based vaccines are safe and effective in inducing transmission-blocking antibodies, the extent of the genetic diversity of Pfs25 in malaria endemic populations has rarely been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the global diversity of Pfs25 in P. falciparum populations.

Eliminating malaria in southeast Asia requires more attention on adolescent girls

October 16, 2021 - 20:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Poku-Awuku A, Banerji J, de Lauwerier VB, Menendez C, Gonzalez R, Pons-Duran C
Reference: 
Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021 Oct 8:S2352-4642(21)00307-2

Malaria is one of the leading causes of death among adolescent girls in southeast Asia. Young adolescent girls (aged 10–14 years), for whom malaria is the eighth highest cause of mortality, are most affected.

Identification and phylogenetic analysis of voltage-gated sodium channel haplotypes in the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis using a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach

September 29, 2021 - 10:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ni R, Liu N, Li M, Qian W, Qiu X
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 26;14(1):499

Anopheles sinensis is a dominant vector for malaria transmission in Asian countries. Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) mutation-mediated knock-down resistance (kdr) has developed in many A. sinensis populations because of intensive and long-term use of pyrethroids. Our previous study showed that multiple mutations at position 1014 of the VGSC were heterogeneously distributed in A. sinensis populations across Sichuan, China.

NOT Open Access | The End of the Artemisinin Era-We Should Aim at Malaria Eradication in Asia Using Free, Effective Treatment

August 4, 2021 - 12:17 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Petersen E, Picot S
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 2;73(3):414-415

No abstract available

Global economic costs due to vivax malaria and the potential impact of its radical cure: A modelling study

June 5, 2021 - 07:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Devine A, Battle KE, Meagher N, Howes RE, Dini S, Gething PW, Simpson JA, Price RN, Lubell Y
Reference: 
PLoS Med. 2021 Jun 1;18(6):e1003614

In 2017, an estimated 14 million cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria were reported from Asia, Central and South America, and the Horn of Africa. The clinical burden of vivax malaria is largely driven by its ability to form dormant liver stages (hypnozoites) that can reactivate to cause recurrent episodes of malaria. Elimination of both the blood and liver stages of the parasites (“radical cure”) is required to achieve a sustained clinical response and prevent ongoing transmission of the parasite. Novel treatment options and point-of-care diagnostics are now available to ensure that radical cure can be administered safely and effectively. We quantified the global economic cost of vivax malaria and estimated the potential cost benefit of a policy of radical cure after testing patients for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

Management of insecticides for use in disease vector control: Lessons from six countries in Asia and the Middle East

May 19, 2021 - 14:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henk van den Berg, Raman Velayudhan, Rajpal S. Yadav
Reference: 
PLoSNegl Trop Dis15(4):e0009358

Interventions to control the vectors of human diseases, notably malaria, leishmaniasis and dengue, have relied mainly on the action of chemical insecticides. However, concerns have been raised regarding the management of insecticides in vector-borne disease-endemic countries. Our study aimed to analyze how vector control insecticides are managed in selected countries to extract lessons learned.

Rolling out the radical cure for vivax malaria in Asia: a qualitative study among policy makers and stakeholders

March 24, 2021 - 14:50 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bipin Adhikari, Ghulam Rhahim Awab and Lorenz von Seidlein
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:164, 23 March 2021

Wide-spread implementation of treatment regimens for the radical cure of vivax malaria is hindered by a range of factors. This has resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of vivax malaria and is an important obstacle in the achievement of global malaria elimination by 2030. The main objective of this study was to explore the current policies guiding the treatment plans on vivax malaria, and the factors affecting the implementation of radical cure in South/South East Asian and Asian Pacific countries.

NOT Open Access | Artemisia annua - Importance in Traditional Medicine and Current State of Knowledge on the Chemistry, Biological Activity and Possible Applications

January 26, 2021 - 15:19 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ekiert H, Świątkowska J, Klin P, Rzepiela A, Szopa A
Reference: 
Planta Med. 2021 Jan 22

Artemisia annua (annual mugwort) is a species that has long been used in traditional Asian medicine, mainly Chinese and Hindu. The species is widespread and known as a medicinal plant not only in Asia but also in Europe, in both Americas, and Australia. The species has become a subject of particular interest due to the 2015 Nobel Prize awarded for detecting the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin in it and proving its antimalarial activities. The raw materials obtained from this species are Artemisiae annuae folium and Artemisiae annuae herba.

Bayesian spatio-temporal modeling of malaria risk in Rwanda

September 15, 2020 - 10:41 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Semakula M, Niragire FI, Faes C
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2020 Sep 10;15(9):e0238504

Every year, 435,000 people worldwide die from Malaria, mainly in Africa and Asia. However, malaria is a curable and preventable disease. Most countries are developing malaria elimination plans to meet sustainable development goal three, target 3.3, which includes ending the epidemic of malaria by 2030. Rwanda, through the malaria strategic plan 2012-2018 set a target to reduce malaria incidence by 42% from 2012 to 2018.

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