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India

NOT Open Access | Does the roof type of a house influence the presence of adult Anopheles stephensi, urban malaria vector? - evidence from a few slum settings in Chennai, India

November 17, 2021 - 09:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Ravishankaran S, Asokan A, Justin NAJA, Thomas S, Joshua V, Mathai MT, Eapen A
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Nov 13

In an urban setting, it is a difficult task to collect adult Anopheles stephensi, unlike the immature stages, due to various reasons. A longitudinal study was undertaken from January 2016 to April 2017, with CDC light traps to collect adult Anopheles stephensi and other mosquito species in houses located in a few slums of Chennai, India. A total of 203 trap collections were made indoors from human dwellings having different roof types, as well as outdoors. Three to four trap collections were made at night (18:00 to 06:00 h) once a week.

NOT Open Access | Congenital Malaria in newborns delivered to Malaria-Infected mothers in hilly region of northern India: Is it really deadly

November 5, 2021 - 13:29 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Singh A, Omar BJ, Chacham S, Chaturvedi J, Basu S, Mohan K, Bhakat R
Reference: 
Curr Pediatr Rev. 2021 Nov 1

Malaria is endemic in many states of India. Though there are reports of maternal and congenital malaria from endemic areas, however there remains paucity of data from hilly terrains. The present study evaluated the prevalence, clinical and microbiological spectrum of maternal and congenital malaria at a tertiary health care facility in Northern India over a period of 18 months.

The impact of mosquito proof lids of underground tanks “tanka” on the breeding of Anopheles stephensi in a village in western Rajasthan, India

October 30, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Himmat Singh, Sanjeev Kumar Gupta, Kumar Vikram, Rekha Saxena and Amit Sharma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:412, 19 October 2021

Western Rajasthan in India has a typical desert climate. Until the introduction of the canal water irrigation system, malaria was an unstable and seasonal occurrence. Due to the scarcity of water, the community practised having one large underground tank (locally known as the tanka) in their house to collect rainwater for long-term household use. Anopheles stephensi, one of the major malaria vectors, breeds in improperly covered "tankas” if not properly covered and harbours a vector population throughout the year.

Not Open Access | Learnings from two independent malaria elimination demonstration projects in India

October 5, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rajvanshi H, Mishra K, Lal AA, et al.
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Sep 25:trab148

India and sub-Saharan Africa contributes about 85% of the global malaria burden, and India is committed to eliminating malaria by 2030.

NOT Open Access | Analysis of the insecticide resistance mechanism in Anopheles culicifacies sensu lato from a malaria-endemic state in India

August 25, 2021 - 15:51 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Kareemi TI, Mishra AK, Chand SK, Nirankar JK, Vishwakarma AK, Tiwari A, Bharti PK
Reference: 
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 23:trab110

Understanding the dynamics and mechanisms of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for vector control activities. The present study investigates the level of insecticide resistance in Anopheles culicifacies and explores the role of two main mechanisms in conferring resistance target site insensitivity and metabolic resistance.

Genetic diversity in two leading Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates AMA1 and MSP119 at three sites in India

August 10, 2021 - 18:22 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kale S, Pande V, Singh OP, Carlton JM, Mallick PK
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Aug 9;15(8):e0009652

Plasmodium vivax, a major contributor to the malaria burden in India, has the broadest geographic distribution and shows higher genetic diversity than P. falciparum. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity of two leading P. vivax vaccine candidate antigens, at three geographically diverse malaria-endemic regions in India. Pvama1 and Pvmsp119 partial coding sequences were generated from one hundred P. vivax isolates in India (Chennai n = 28, Nadiad n = 50 and Rourkela n = 22) and ~1100 published sequences from Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania regions included.

NOT Open Access | Sequential dysregulated plasma levels of angiopoietins (ANG-2 and ratios of ANG-2/ANG-1) are associated with malaria severity and mortality among hospital admitted cases in South Bastar Region of Chhattisgarh, Central India

July 28, 2021 - 14:36 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Jain V, Thomas T, Basak S, Sharma RK, Singh N
Reference: 
Pathog Glob Health. 2021 Jul 26:1-12

Cerebral malaria (CM) is one of the most severe forms of P. falciparum infection, with an associated high case-fatality rate. Angiopoietins (ANG-1 and ANG-2) are important biomarkers of endothelial activation and dysfunction. This study was carried out in Maharani Hospital and associated Medical College, Jagdalpur, CG, Central India from 2010 to 2014. Based on the treatment recovery patterns, cases (n = 65) were classified as mild malaria with rapid recovery (MM-RR), n= 14; non-cerebral severe malaria with moderately fast recovery (NCSM-MFR), n= 9; CM survivors with slow recovery (CMS-SR), n= 36 and deteriorated CM non-survivors (Det-CMNS), n= 6.

Socio-economic and household determinants of malaria in adults aged 45 and above: analysis of longitudinal ageing survey in India, 2017–2018

July 14, 2021 - 10:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Indumathi Mohan, Naveen Kumar Kodali, Savitha Chellappan, Balasubramani Karuppusamy, Sujit Kumar Behera, Gopalan Natarajan and Praveen Balabaskaran Nina
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:306, 7 July 2021

Even though malaria cases have drastically come down in the last decade, malaria remains a serious public health concern in many parts of India. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016–2030) has been launched with the goal to eliminate malaria by 2030. Understanding the socio-economic and household determinants of malaria at the national level will greatly aid India’s malaria elimination efforts.

Not Open Access | Defeating malaria in the North-East region: the forerunner for malaria elimination in India

July 14, 2021 - 10:55 -- NOT Open Access
Tags: 
Author(s): 
Dev V, Manguin S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jul 9:106040

India is a malaria endemic country which is targeting malaria elimination by 2027. Transmission intensities are low-to-moderate depending on the region supported by multiple disease vectors. Among these, comparatively North-East India contributes to high proportions of malaria cases annually, the majority of which are due to Plasmodium falciparum (90%). Anopheles minimus and An. baimaii (sibling species in the An. dirus complex) are widely prevalent and incriminated as vectors of malaria.

NOT Open Access | Hemocyte RNA-Seq analysis of Indian malarial vectors Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies: from similarities to differences

July 6, 2021 - 13:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Rani J, Chauhan C, Das De T, Kumari S, Sharma P, Tevatiya S, Patel K, Mishra AK, Pandey KC, Singh N, Dixit R
Reference: 
Gene. 2021 Jul 2:145810

Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are dominant malarial vectors in urban and rural India, respectively. Both species carry significant biological differences in their behavioral adaptation and immunity, but the genetic basis of these variations are still poorly understood. Here, we uncovered the genetic differences of immune blood cells, that influence several immune-physiological responses. We generated, analyzed and compared the hemocyte RNA-Seq database of both mosquitoes. A total of 5,837,223,769 assembled bases collapsed into 7,595 and 3,791 transcripts, originating from hemocytes of laboratory-reared 3-4 days old naïve (sugar-fed) mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies respectively.

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