Among all the parasitic diseases in humans, malaria is the most significant and malicious one. The widespread species are Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but the infection caused by former is the deadliest. According to November 2018 report of the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 219 million cases of malaria reported globally in 2017 which led to an estimated 435,000 deaths. Mortality due to malaria is estimated at 1.5 - 2.7 million deaths each year. Among all the complications associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, cerebral malaria (CM) is the most fretful, accounting for almost 13% of all malaria-related deaths. CM is a medical emergency which requires immediate clinical testing and treatment.
The changing global health landscape has highlighted the need for more proactive, efficient and transparent health policy-making. After more than 60 years of limited development, novel tools for vivax malaria are finally available, but need to be integrated into national policies. This paper maps the malaria policy-making processes in seven endemic countries, to identify areas where it can be improved to align with best practices and optimal efficiency.
This study examines the dynamics of malaria as influenced by meteorological factors in French Guiana from 2005 to 2019. It explores spatial hotspots of malaria transmission and aims to determine the factors associated with variation of hotspots with time.
The global burden of malaria is often reported as a single value that combines the malarias caused by the 5 species of plasmodia that naturally infect humans. The vast majority of this burden is attributable to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malarias, which have only recently begun to be reported separately in the World Malaria Report .
Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.
Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax VK210 (P. vivax210) or P. vivax VK247 (P. vivax247), employing assays that were developed over three decades ago. The ELISA method requires a separate assay plate for each analyte tested and can be time consuming as well as requiring sample volumes not always available. The bead-based multiplex platform allows simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes and may improve the lower limit of detection for sporozoites.
Venezuela accounted for 55% of the cases and 73% of the malaria deaths in the Americas in 2019. Bolivar state, in the southeast, contributes > 60% of the country's Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum cases every year. This study describes the clinical–epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria patients in this high-transmission area.
Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.
Malaria is considered one of the most important scourges that humanity has faced during its history, being responsible every year for numerous deaths worldwide. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites, among which two species are responsible of the majority of the burden, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. For these two parasite species, the questions of their origin (how and when they appeared in humans), of their spread throughout the world, as well as how they have adapted to humans have long been of interest to the scientific community.
In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.