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NOT Open Access | An Update on Recent Advances for the Treatment of Cerebral Malaria

December 1, 2021 - 20:28 -- NOT Open Access
Purohit D, Kumar S, Dutt R, Bhardwaj TR
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2021 Nov 24q

Among all the parasitic diseases in humans, malaria is the most significant and malicious one. The widespread species are Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, but the infection caused by former is the deadliest. According to November 2018 report of the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 219 million cases of malaria reported globally in 2017 which led to an estimated 435,000 deaths. Mortality due to malaria is estimated at 1.5 - 2.7 million deaths each year. Among all the complications associated with Plasmodium falciparum infection, cerebral malaria (CM) is the most fretful, accounting for almost 13% of all malaria-related deaths. CM is a medical emergency which requires immediate clinical testing and treatment.

Opening the policy blackbox: unravelling the process for changing national diagnostic and treatment guidelines for vivax malaria in seven countries

November 20, 2021 - 13:24 -- Open Access
Varunika Ruwanpura, Josselyn Neukom, Koen Peeters Grietens, Ric N. Price, Kamala Thriemer and Caroline A. Lynch
Malaria Journal 2021 20:428, 30 October 2021

The changing global health landscape has highlighted the need for more proactive, efficient and transparent health policy-making. After more than 60 years of limited development, novel tools for vivax malaria are finally available, but need to be integrated into national policies. This paper maps the malaria policy-making processes in seven endemic countries, to identify areas where it can be improved to align with best practices and optimal efficiency.

Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in French Guiana: 2005-2019

October 30, 2021 - 13:22 -- Open Access
Scully J, Mosnier E, Carbunar A, Roux E, Djossou F, Garçeran N, Musset L, Sanna A, Demar M, Nacher M, Gaudart J
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Jan 26;18(3):1077

This study examines the dynamics of malaria as influenced by meteorological factors in French Guiana from 2005 to 2019. It explores spatial hotspots of malaria transmission and aims to determine the factors associated with variation of hotspots with time.

The global burden of Plasmodium vivax malaria is obscure and insidious

October 13, 2021 - 12:46 -- Open Access
Battle KE, Baird JK
PLoS Med. 2021 Oct 7;18(10):e1003799

The global burden of malaria is often reported as a single value that combines the malarias caused by the 5 species of plasmodia that naturally infect humans. The vast majority of this burden is attributable to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malarias, which have only recently begun to be reported separately in the World Malaria Report [2].

Spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in northern Ethiopia by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, laboratory antibody and antigen data

October 13, 2021 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Leonard CM, Assefa A, Sime H, Mohammed H, Kebede A, Solomon H, Drakeley C, Murphy M, Hwang J, Rogier E
J Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 10:jiab489

Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.

Adaptation of ELISA detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite proteins in mosquitoes to a multiplex bead-based immunoassay

October 6, 2021 - 20:11 -- Open Access
Alice C. Sutcliffe, Seth R. Irish, Eric Rogier, Micaela Finney, Sarah Zohdy and Ellen M. Dotson
Malaria Journal 2021 20:377, 23 September 2021

Plasmodium spp. sporozoite rates in mosquitoes are used to better understand malaria transmission intensity, the relative importance of vector species and the impact of interventions. These rates are typically estimated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) utilizing antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax VK210 (P. vivax210) or P. vivax VK247 (P. vivax247), employing assays that were developed over three decades ago. The ELISA method requires a separate assay plate for each analyte tested and can be time consuming as well as requiring sample volumes not always available. The bead-based multiplex platform allows simultaneous measurement of multiple analytes and may improve the lower limit of detection for sporozoites.

The clinical–epidemiological profile of malaria patients from Southern Venezuela, a critical hotspot in Latin America

October 6, 2021 - 20:07 -- Open Access
David A. Forero-Peña, Fhabián S. Carrión-Nessi, Ananías A. Escalante, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:375, 20 September 2021

Venezuela accounted for 55% of the cases and 73% of the malaria deaths in the Americas in 2019. Bolivar state, in the southeast, contributes > 60% of the country's Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum cases every year. This study describes the clinical–epidemiological characteristics of clinical malaria patients in this high-transmission area.

Plasmodium vivax epidemiology in Ethiopia 2000-2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis

September 25, 2021 - 12:06 -- Open Access
Ketema T, Bacha K, Getahun K, Portillo HAD, Bassat Q
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 15;15(9):e0009781

Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.

Not Open Access | A population genetic perspective on the origin, spread and adaptation of the human malaria agents Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

September 25, 2021 - 12:04 -- NOT Open Access
Rougeron V, Boundenga L, Arnathau C, Durand P, Renaud F, Prugnolle F.
FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2021 Sep 22:fuab047

Malaria is considered one of the most important scourges that humanity has faced during its history, being responsible every year for numerous deaths worldwide. The disease is caused by protozoan parasites, among which two species are responsible of the majority of the burden, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. For these two parasite species, the questions of their origin (how and when they appeared in humans), of their spread throughout the world, as well as how they have adapted to humans have long been of interest to the scientific community.

Development of weight and age-based dosing of daily primaquine for radical cure of vivax malaria

September 14, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Walter Robert Taylor, Richard M. Hoglund, Mavuto Mukaka, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:366 9 September 2021

In many endemic areas, Plasmodium vivax malaria is predominantly a disease of young adults and children. International recommendations for radical cure recommend fixed target doses of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/day of primaquine for 14 days in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase normal patients of all ages. However, for many anti-malarial drugs, including primaquine, there is evidence that children have lower exposures than adults for the same weight-adjusted dose. The aim of the study was to develop 14-day weight-based and age-based primaquine regimens against high-frequency relapsing tropical P. vivax.


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