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Brazil

Cohort profile: the Mancio Lima cohort study of urban malaria in Amazonian Brazil

November 25, 2021 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Johansen IC, Rodrigues PT, Tonini J, Vinetz J, Castro MC, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
BMJ Open. 2021 Nov 17;11(11):e048073

This population-based open cohort study aims to investigate biological and sociodemographic drivers of malaria transmission in the main urban hotspot of Amazonian Brazil.

Malaria Trigram: improving the visualization of recurrence data for malaria elimination

November 20, 2021 - 14:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cleber Matos de Morais, Kayo Henrique de Carvalho Monteiro, Jose Diego Brito-Sousa, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Vanderson Souza Sampaio, Patricia Takako Endo and Judith Kelner
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:431, 30 October 2021

Although considerable success in reducing the incidence of malaria has been achieved in Brazil in recent years, an increase in the proportion of cases caused by the harder-to-eliminate Plasmodium vivax parasite can be noted. Recurrences in P. vivax malaria cases are due to new mosquito-bite infections, drug resistance or especially from relapses arising from hypnozoites. As such, new innovative surveillance strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to develop an infographic visualization tool to improve individual-level malaria surveillance focused on malaria elimination in the Brazilian Amazon.

Total parasite biomass but not peripheral parasitaemia is associated with endothelial and haematological perturbations in Plasmodium vivax patients

October 2, 2021 - 13:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Silva-Filho JL, Dos-Santos JC, Judice CC, Beraldi D, Venugopal K, De Lima D, Nakaya H, Paula EE, Costa Pinto Lopes S, Lacerda MV, Marti M, Costa FT
Reference: 
Elife. 2021 Sep 29;10:e71351

Plasmodium vivax is the major cause of human malaria in the Americas. How P. vivax infection can lead to poor clinical outcomes, despite low peripheral parasitaemia remains a matter of intense debate. Estimation of total P. vivax biomass based on circulating markers indicates existence of a predominant parasite population outside of circulation. In this study we investigate associations between both peripheral and total parasite biomass and host response in vivax malaria. We analysed parasite and host signatures in a cohort of uncomplicated vivax malaria patients from Manaus, Brazil, combining clinical and parasite parameters, multiplexed analysis of host responses and ex vivo assays. Patterns of clinical features, parasite burden and host signatures measured in plasma across the patient cohort were highly heterogenous.

Monthly biological larviciding associated with a tenfold decrease in larval density in fish farming ponds and reduced community-wide malaria incidence in northwestern Brazil

September 8, 2021 - 15:51 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Fontoura PS, Silva MF, da Costa AS, Ribeiro FS, Ferreira MS, Ladeia-Andrade S, Tonini J, Rodrigues PT, Castro MC, Ferreira MU
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 3;14(1):445

Larvicides are typically applied to fixed and findable mosquito breeding sites, such as fish farming ponds used in commercial aquaculture, to kill immature forms and thereby reduce the size of adult malaria vector populations. However, there is little evidence suggesting that larviciding may suppress community-wide malaria transmission outside Africa. Here, we tested whether the biological larvicide VectoMax FG applied at monthly intervals to fish farming ponds can reduce malaria incidence in Amazonian Brazil.

NOT Open Access | In vitro antiplasmodial activity, targeted LC-MS metabolite profiling, and identification of major natural products in the bioactive extracts of Palicourea and Psychotria species from the Amazonia and Atlantic Forest biomes, Brazil

September 7, 2021 - 15:32 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Gontijo DC, do Nascimento MFA, Rody HVS, Magalhães RA, Margalho LF, Brandão GC, de Oliveira AB
Reference: 
Metabolomics. 2021 Sep 4;17(9):81


To assess the antiplasmodial activity of 24 extracts from Palicourea and Psychotria genera, along with the targeted LC–MS metabolite profiling, as well as identification of the main metabolites in the bioactive extracts.

NOT Open Access | Climate change impacts on Anopheles (K.) cruzii in urban areas of Atlantic Forest of Brazil: challenges for malaria diseases

September 7, 2021 - 15:28 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Marques R, Krüger RF, Cunha SK, Silveira AS, Alves DMCC, Rodrigues GD, Peterson AT, Jiménez-García D
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Sep 1:106123

Around 27% of South Americans live in central and southern Brazil. Of 19,400 human malaria cases in Brazil in 2018, some were from the southern and southeastern states. High abundance of malaria vectors is generally positively associated with malaria incidence. Expanding geographic distributions of Anopheles vector mosquito species (e.g. A. cruzii) in the face of climate change processes would increase risk of such malaria transmission; such risk is of particular concern in regions that hold human population concentrations near present limits of vector species' geographic distributions.

Evaluation of a point-of-care diagnostic to identify glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Brazil

August 17, 2021 - 15:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zobrist S, Brito M, Garbin E, Monteiro WM, Clementino Freitas S, Macedo M, Soares Moura A, Advani N, Kahn M, Pal S, Gerth-Guyette E, Bansil P, Domingo GJ, Pereira D, Lacerda MV
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Aug 12;15(8):e0009649

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzyme deficiency, prevalent in many malaria-endemic countries. G6PD-deficient individuals are susceptible to hemolysis during oxidative stress, which can occur from exposure to certain medications, including 8-aminoquinolines used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria. Accordingly, access to point-of-care (POC) G6PD testing in Brazil is critical for safe treatment of P. vivax malaria.

NOT Open Access | Rediscovery of Plasmodium (Huffia) huffi (Apicomplexa, Haemosporida): a lost lineage from toucans

August 10, 2021 - 18:39 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Cedrola F, Martinele I, Senra MVX, Furtado EJO, D Agosto M, Dias RJP
Reference: 
Parasitol Res. 2021 Aug 10

Literature data on toucans haemosporidians are scarce and all reports come from investigations in Brazil. Muniz et al. (Rev Bras Malariol 3: 339-356, Muniz et al., Rev Bras Malariol 3:339-356, 1951) and Muniz and Soares (Rev Bras Malar 611-617, Muniz J, Soares R de RL (1954) Nota sôbre um parasita do gênero Plasmodium encontrado no Ramphastos toco Müller, 1776, "Tucano-Açu", e diferente do Plasmodium huffi: Plasmodium pinottii n. sp. Rev Bras Malar 611 - 617.) described two Plasmodium species, P. huffi and P. pinottii, in Ramphastos toco. Later, Manwell and Sessler (J Protozol 18: 570-574, Manwell and Sessler, Malaria Parasites of Toucans J Protozol 18:570-574, 1971) established a new subspecies, P. nucleophilum toucani.

NOT Open Access | Mixed Plasmodium Malariae Infections Were Underdetected in a Malaria Endemic Area in the Amazon Region, Brazil

August 10, 2021 - 17:38 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Cunha MG, Santos CS, Raiol M, Costa SPT, Ventura AMR, Póvoa MM, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos Â
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Aug 9:tpmd210296

Plasmodium malariae infections are often asymptomatic and long-lasting. Mixed infections are often underdetected in areas where P. malariae, P. vivax, and P. falciparum are coendemic.

NOT Open Access | A Genetically Modified Anti-Plasmodium Bacterium Is Harmless to the Foragers of the Stingless Bee Partamona helleri

July 13, 2021 - 15:06 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Viana TA, Barbosa WF, Jojoa LLB, Bernardes RC, da Silva JS, Jacobs-Lorena M, Martins GF
Reference: 
Microb Ecol. 2021 Jul 7. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01805-9

Paratransgenesis consists of genetically engineering an insect symbiont to control vector-borne diseases. Biosafety assessments are a prerequisite for the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Assessments rely on the measurement of the possible impacts of GMOs on different organisms, including beneficial organisms, such as pollinators.

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