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Mosquito metallomics reveal copper and iron as critical factors for Plasmodium infection

June 29, 2021 - 14:13 -- Open Access
Maya-Maldonado K, Cardoso-Jaime V, González-Olvera G, Osorio B, Recio-Tótoro B, Manrique-Saide P, Rodríguez-Sánchez IP, Lanz-Mendoza H, Missirlis F, Hernández-Hernández FC
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 23;15(6):e0009509

Iron and copper chelation restricts Plasmodium growth in vitro and in mammalian hosts. The parasite alters metal homeostasis in red blood cells to its favor, for example metabolizing hemoglobin to hemozoin. Metal interactions with the mosquito have not, however, been studied. Here, we describe the metallomes of Anopheles albimanus and Aedes aegypti throughout their life cycle and following a blood meal. Consistent with previous reports, we found evidence of maternal iron deposition in embryos of Ae. aegypti, but less so in An. albimanus.

NOT Open Access | Functional human IgA targets a conserved site on malaria sporozoites

June 29, 2021 - 14:02 -- NOT Open Access
Tan J, Cho H, Crompton PD, et al.
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jun 23;13(599):eabg2344

Immunoglobulin (Ig)A antibodies play a critical role in protection against mucosal pathogens. However, the role of serum IgA in immunity to nonmucosal pathogens, such as Plasmodium falciparum, is poorly characterized, despite being the second most abundant isotype in blood after IgG. Here, we investigated the circulating IgA response in humans to P. falciparum sporozoites that are injected into the skin by mosquitoes and migrate to the liver via the bloodstream to initiate malaria infection. We found that circulating IgA was induced in three independent sporozoite-exposed cohorts: individuals living in an endemic region in Mali, malaria-naïve individuals immunized intravenously with three large doses of irradiated sporozoites, and malaria-naïve individuals exposed to a single controlled mosquito bite infection.

Dissection-independent production of Plasmodium sporozoites from whole mosquitoes

June 23, 2021 - 13:47 -- Open Access
Blight J, Sala KA, Baum J, et al.
Life Sci Alliance. 2021 Jun 16;4(7):e202101094

Progress towards a protective vaccine against malaria remains slow. To date, only limited protection has been routinely achieved following immunisation with either whole-parasite (sporozoite) or subunit-based vaccines. One major roadblock to vaccine progress, and to pre-erythrocytic parasite biology in general, is the continued reliance on manual salivary gland dissection for sporozoite isolation from infected mosquitoes.

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Villages and Forest Areas of Rural Communes in Khanh Hoa and Binh Phuoc Provinces, Vietnam

June 22, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Vu NS, Hertz JC, Martin NJ, Tran TC, Fiorenzano JM, Tran PV, Nguyen HV, Dang AD, Tran DN, Motoki MT
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jun 18:tjab106

This study presents the diversity of mosquitoes collected from communes, endemic with malaria and dengue, located in Khanh Hoa and Binh Phuoc Provinces, Vietnam. A total of 10,288 mosquitoes were collected in the village and forested sites using standard larval dippers, cow-baited traps, ultra-violet light traps, and mechanical aspirators. Mosquito taxa were identified morphologically and species complexes/groups were further characterized molecularly.

Infectivity of patent Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers to mosquitoes: establishing capacity to investigate the infectious reservoir of malaria in a low-transmission setting in The Gambia

June 16, 2021 - 14:56 -- Open Access
Ahmad A, Soumare HM, Camara MM, Jadama L, Gaye PM, Bittaye H, Bradley J, Achan J, Bousema T, D'Alessandro U, Drakeley C, Moreno M
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Jun 9:trab087

Understanding the human malaria infectious reservoir is important for elimination initiatives. Here, we implemented mosquito membrane feeding experiments to prepare for larger studies to quantify the transmission potential and relative contribution of the human infectious reservoir.

Development of a chimeric odour blend for attracting gravid malaria vectors

June 16, 2021 - 12:53 -- Open Access
Betelehem Wondwosen, Mengistu Dawit, Yared Debebe, Habte Tekie, Sharon R. Hill and Rickard Ignell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:262, 9 June 2021

Odour-based tools targeting gravid malaria vectors may complement existing intervention strategies. Anopheles arabiensis are attracted to, and stimulated to oviposit by, natural and synthetic odours of wild and domesticated grasses associated with mosquito breeding sites. While such synthetic odour lures may be used for vector control, these may have limited efficacy when placed in direct competition with the natural source. In this study, workflows developed for plant-feeding pests was used to design and evaluate a chimeric odour blend based on shared attractive compounds found in domesticated grass odours.

Comparison of four outdoor mosquito trapping methods as potential replacements for human landing catches in western Kenya

June 16, 2021 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Abong'o B, Gimnig JE, Oxborough RM, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 12;14(1):320

Longitudinal monitoring of outdoor-biting malaria vector populations is becoming increasingly important in understanding the dynamics of residual malaria transmission. However, the human landing catch (HLC), the gold standard for measuring human biting rates indoors and outdoors, is costly and raises ethical concerns related to increased risk of infectious bites among collectors. Consequently, routine data on outdoor-feeding mosquito populations are usually limited because of the lack of a scalable tool with similar sensitivity to outdoor HLC.

The relationship between house height and mosquito house entry: an experimental study in rural Gambia

June 15, 2021 - 10:54 -- Open Access
Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Musa Jawara, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
J. R. Soc. Interface, May 2021 Volume 18 Issue 178

Most malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa are acquired indoors, thus finding effective ways of preventing mosquito house entry should reduce transmission. Since most malaria mosquitoes fly less than 1 m from the ground, we tested whether raising buildings off the ground would prevent the entry of Anopheles gambiae, the principal African malaria vector, in rural Gambia.

Impact of increased ventilation on indoor temperature and malaria mosquito density: an experimental study in The Gambia

June 15, 2021 - 10:53 -- Open Access
Ebrima Jatta, Majo Carrasco-Tenezaca, Steve W. Lindsay, et al.
J. R. Soc. Interface, May 2021 Volume 18 Issue 178

In sub-Saharan Africa, cooler houses would increase the coverage of insecticide-treated bednets, the primary malaria control tool. We examined whether improved ventilation, using windows screened with netting, cools houses at night and reduces malaria mosquito house entry in The Gambia. Identical houses were constructed, with badly fitting doors the only mosquito entry points.

The application of drones for mosquito larval habitat identification in rural environments: a practical approach for malaria control

June 5, 2021 - 06:29 -- Open Access
Michelle C. Stanton, Patrick Kalonde, Kennedy Zembere, Remy Hoek Spaans and Christopher M. Jones
Malaria Journal 2021 20:244, 31 May 2021

Spatio-temporal trends in mosquito-borne diseases are driven by the locations and seasonality of larval habitat. One method of disease control is to decrease the mosquito population by modifying larval habitat, known as larval source management (LSM). In malaria control, LSM is currently considered impractical in rural areas due to perceived difficulties in identifying target areas. High resolution drone mapping is being considered as a practical solution to address this barrier. In this paper, the authors’ experiences of drone-led larval habitat identification in Malawi were used to assess the feasibility of this approach.


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