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NOT Open Access | Crystalloids: Fascinating Parasite Organelles Essential for Malaria Transmission

May 5, 2021 - 08:15 -- NOT Open Access
Dessens JT, Tremp AZ, Saeed S
Trends Parasitol. 2021 Apr 30:S1471-4922(21)00082-9

Crystalloids are malaria parasite organelles exclusive to the ookinete and young oocyst life stages that infect the mosquito.

Higher gametocyte production and mosquito infectivity in chronic compared to incident Plasmodium falciparum infections

April 29, 2021 - 07:46 -- Open Access
Barry A, Bradley J, Bousema T, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Apr 26;12(1):2443

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte kinetics and infectivity may differ between chronic and incident infections. In the current study, we assess parasite kinetics and infectivity to mosquitoes among children (aged 5-10 years) from Burkina Faso with (a) incident infections following parasite clearance (n = 48) and (b) chronic asymptomatic infections (n = 60). In the incident infection cohort, 92% (44/48) of children develop symptoms within 35 days, compared to 23% (14/60) in the chronic cohort. All individuals with chronic infection carried gametocytes or developed them during follow-up, whereas only 35% (17/48) in the incident cohort produce gametocytes before becoming symptomatic and receiving treatment.

Maintaining Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte infectivity during blood collection and transport for mosquito feeding assays in the field

April 21, 2021 - 14:48 -- Open Access
Harouna M. Soumare, Wamdaogo Moussa Guelbeogo, Katharine A. Collins, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:191, 20 April 2021

Mosquito feeding assays using venous blood are commonly used for evaluating the transmission potential of malaria infected individuals. To improve the accuracy of these assays, care must be taken to prevent premature activation or inactivation of gametocytes before they are fed to mosquitoes. This can be challenging in the field where infected individuals and insectary facilities are sometimes very far apart. In this study, a simple, reliable, field applicable method is presented for storage and transport of gametocyte infected blood using a thermos flask.

Community knowledge, attitudes and practices towards malaria in Ha-Lambani, Limpopo Province, South Africa: a cross-sectional household survey

April 21, 2021 - 14:40 -- Open Access
Mukhethwa Munzhedzi, Elizabeth T. Rogawski McQuade, Jennifer L. Guler, Piper E. Shifflett, Sara Krivacsy, Rebecca Dillingham and Pascal O. Bessong
Malaria Journal 2021 20:188, 17 April 2021

Malaria remains a global health concern and is endemic in Limpopo, Mpumalanga and KwaZulu Natal Provinces of South Africa, which aims to eliminate malaria by 2025. Community engagement plays a significant role in improving the acceptability and effectiveness of programmes aimed at reducing malaria transmission. The success of such intervention efforts depends on the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the community, and understanding the KAP of community residents may support malaria control efforts in the locality. In this context, a cross-sectional household survey to assess community KAP on malaria transmission and prevention in the Ha-Lambani village, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province was conducted.

Agent-based modelling of complex factors impacting malaria prevalence

April 21, 2021 - 14:33 -- Open Access
Miracle Amadi, Anna Shcherbacheva and Heikki Haario
Malaria Journal 2021 20:185, 15 April 2021

Increasingly complex models have been developed to characterize the transmission dynamics of malaria. The multiplicity of malaria transmission factors calls for a realistic modelling approach that incorporates various complex factors such as the effect of control measures, behavioural impacts of the parasites to the vector, or socio-economic variables. Indeed, the crucial impact of household size in eliminating malaria has been emphasized in previous studies. However, increasing complexity also increases the difficulty of calibrating model parameters. Moreover, despite the availability of much field data, a common pitfall in malaria transmission modelling is to obtain data that could be directly used for model calibration.

Clustering and Erratic Movement Patterns of Syringe-Injected versus Mosquito-Inoculated Malaria Sporozoites Underlie Decreased Infectivity

April 14, 2021 - 16:29 -- Open Access
de Korne CM, Winkel BMF, Roestenberg M, et al.
mSphere. 2021 Apr 7;6(2):e00218-21

Malaria vaccine candidates based on live, attenuated sporozoites have led to high levels of protection. However, their efficacy critically depends on the sporozoites' ability to reach and infect the host liver. Administration via mosquito inoculation is by far the most potent method for inducing immunity but highly impractical. Here, we observed that intradermal syringe-injected Plasmodium berghei sporozoites (syrSPZ) were 3-fold less efficient in migrating to and infecting mouse liver than mosquito-inoculated sporozoites (msqSPZ).

Converting endogenous genes of the malaria mosquito into simple non-autonomous gene drives for population replacement

April 14, 2021 - 08:02 -- Open Access
Hoermann A, Tapanelli S, Capriotti P, Del Corsano G, Masters EK, Habtewold T, Christophides GK, Windbichler N
Elife. 2021 Apr 13;10:e58791

Gene drives for mosquito population replacement are promising tools for malaria control. However, there is currently no clear pathway for safely testing such tools in endemic countries. The lack of well-characterized promoters for infection-relevant tissues and regulatory hurdles are further obstacles for their design and use. Here we explore how minimal genetic modifications of endogenous mosquito genes can convert them directly into non-autonomous gene drives without disrupting their expression.

Mosquito‐repellent controlled‐release formulations for fighting infectious diseases

March 24, 2021 - 14:52 -- Open Access
António B. Mapossa, Walter W. Focke, Robert K. Tewo, René Androsch and Taneshka Kruger
Malaria Journal 2021 20:165, 24 March 2021

Malaria is a principal cause of illness and death in countries where the disease is endemic. Personal protection against mosquitoes using repellents could be a useful method that can reduce and/or prevent transmission of mosquito-borne diseases. The available repellent products, such as creams, roll-ons, and sprays for personal protection against mosquitoes, lack adequate long-term efficacy. In most cases, they need to be re-applied or replaced frequently. The encapsulation and release of the repellents from several matrices has risen as an alternative process for the development of invention of repellent based systems.

A retail audit of mosquito control products in Busia County, western Kenya

March 24, 2021 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Prisca A. Oria, Vincent Moshi, Julius I. Odero, Sheila Ekodir, April Monroe, Steven A. Harvey, Eric Ochomo and Danielle Piccinini Black
Malaria Journal 2021 20:163, 23 March 2021

Approximately 70% of Kenya’s population is at risk for malaria. The core vector control methods in Kenya are insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying, with supplementary larval source management. In 2015, 21% of ITNs were accessed through the private retail sector. Despite the private sector role in supplying mosquito control products (MCPs), there is little evidence on the availability, sales trends, and consumer preferences for MCPs other than ITNs. This study, a component of a larger research programme focused on evaluating a spatial repellent intervention class for mosquito-borne disease control, addressed this evidence gap on the role of the private sector in supplying MCPs.

Development and Testing of Long-Lasting IRS Products While Revising the WHO Test Protocol

March 23, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Ole Skovmand, Gisele Ongmayeb, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Moussa Namountougou, Benson Georges Meda, Trung Trang, Duoc Dang, Tuan Nguyen
JPHI, Vol-3 Issue 4 Pg. no.– 2

The paper describes the development of a long-lasting product for Intra-domicile residual spray (IRS) and shows it is possible to obtain a residual effect of nearly 2 years. However, to obtain that the methods currently recommended by WHO for laboratory evaluation had to be modified and approached methods closer to the semifield and field evaluations as applied in later phases of WHO procedures.


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