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A retail audit of mosquito control products in Busia County, western Kenya

March 24, 2021 - 14:46 -- Open Access
Prisca A. Oria, Vincent Moshi, Julius I. Odero, Sheila Ekodir, April Monroe, Steven A. Harvey, Eric Ochomo and Danielle Piccinini Black
Malaria Journal 2021 20:163, 23 March 2021

Approximately 70% of Kenya’s population is at risk for malaria. The core vector control methods in Kenya are insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying, with supplementary larval source management. In 2015, 21% of ITNs were accessed through the private retail sector. Despite the private sector role in supplying mosquito control products (MCPs), there is little evidence on the availability, sales trends, and consumer preferences for MCPs other than ITNs. This study, a component of a larger research programme focused on evaluating a spatial repellent intervention class for mosquito-borne disease control, addressed this evidence gap on the role of the private sector in supplying MCPs.

Development and Testing of Long-Lasting IRS Products While Revising the WHO Test Protocol

March 23, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Ole Skovmand, Gisele Ongmayeb, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Moussa Namountougou, Benson Georges Meda, Trung Trang, Duoc Dang, Tuan Nguyen
JPHI, Vol-3 Issue 4 Pg. no.– 2

The paper describes the development of a long-lasting product for Intra-domicile residual spray (IRS) and shows it is possible to obtain a residual effect of nearly 2 years. However, to obtain that the methods currently recommended by WHO for laboratory evaluation had to be modified and approached methods closer to the semifield and field evaluations as applied in later phases of WHO procedures.

NOT Open Access | Does Antibody Avidity to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Antigens increase with Age in Individuals living in Malaria-Endemic Areas

March 17, 2021 - 17:01 -- NOT Open Access
Yunga ST, Bobbili N, Lloyd YM, Antallan J, Matsunaga M, Quakyi I, Leke RFG, Taylor DW
Infect Immun. 2021 Mar 15:IAI.00522-20

High avidity antibodies (Abs) are acquired after a few Plasmodium falciparum infections in low transmission areas, but it remains unclear if Ab avidity to different merozoite antigens increases with age in individuals with persistent antigenemia and if so, when a fully mature Ab response occurs.

Agent-based modeling of malaria control through mosquito aquatic habitats management in a traditional sub-Sahara grouping

March 17, 2021 - 09:36 -- Open Access
Layie P, Kamla VC, Kamgang JC, Wono YE
BMC Public Health. 2021 Mar 11;21(1):487

Africans pour dirty water around their houses which constitutes aquatic habitats (AH). These AH are sought by mosquitoes for larval development. Recent studies have shown the effectiveness of destroying AH around houses in reducing malaria incidence. An agent-based model is proposed for controlling malaria’s incidence through population sensitizing campaigns on the harmful effects of AH around houses.

Vector incrimination and transmission of avian malaria at an aquarium in Japan: mismatch in parasite composition between mosquitoes and penguins

March 10, 2021 - 15:06 -- Open Access
Mizue Inumaru, Atsushi Yamada, Misa Shimizu, Ayana Ono, Makiko Horinouchi, Tatsuki Shimamoto, Yoshio Tsuda, Koichi Murata and Yukita Sato
Malaria Journal 2021 20:136, 6 March 2021

Captive populations of penguins outside of their natural distributions are often maintained in outdoor facilities, such as zoos and aquariums. Consequently, such penguins in captivity are constantly exposed to mosquito vectors and risk of avian malarial infection during their active period from spring to autumn, which can be lethal to these naïve birds. Previous studies have investigated parasite prevalence in mosquitoes or penguins, but simultaneous investigations, which would be crucial to monitor the transmission dynamics and cycle within a facility, have not been done. To identify dominant lineages and trends, multiple-year surveys are recommended.

Malaria parasites differentially sense environmental elasticity during transmission

March 10, 2021 - 13:24 -- Open Access
Ripp J, Kehrer J, Smyrnakou X, Tisch N, Tavares J, Amino R, Ruiz de Almodovar C, Frischknecht F
EMBO Mol Med. 2021 Mar 5:e13933

Transmission of malaria-causing parasites to and by the mosquito relies on active parasite migration and constitutes bottlenecks in the Plasmodium life cycle. Parasite adaption to the biochemically and physically different environments must hence be a key evolutionary driver for transmission efficiency. To probe how subtle but physiologically relevant changes in environmental elasticity impact parasite migration, we introduce 2D and 3D polyacrylamide gels to study ookinetes, the parasite forms emigrating from the mosquito blood meal and sporozoites, the forms transmitted to the vertebrate host.

Predicting the public health impact of a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine

March 10, 2021 - 13:16 -- Open Access
Challenger JD, Olivera Mesa D, Da DF, Yerbanga RS, Lefèvre T, Cohuet A, Churcher TS
Nat Commun. 2021 Mar 8;12(1):1494

Transmission-blocking vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission from humans to mosquitoes are being tested in early clinical trials. The activity of such a vaccine is commonly evaluated using membrane-feeding assays. Understanding the field efficacy of such a vaccine requires knowledge of how heavily infected wild, naturally blood-fed mosquitoes are, as this indicates how difficult it will be to block transmission.

Real-time dispersal of malaria vectors in rural Africa monitored with lidar

March 9, 2021 - 16:02 -- Open Access
Jansson S, Malmqvist E, Mlacha Y, Ignell R, Okumu F, Killeen G, Kirkeby C, Brydegaard M
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 4;16(3):e0247803

Lack of tools for detailed, real-time observation of mosquito behavior with high spatio-temporal resolution limits progress towards improved malaria vector control. We deployed a high-resolution entomological lidar to monitor a half-kilometer static transect positioned over rice fields outside a Tanzanian village. A quarter of a million in situ insect observations were classified, and several insect taxa were identified based on their modulation signatures.

Plasmodium transcription repressor AP2-O3 regulates sex-specific identity of gene expression in female gametocytes

March 9, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Li Z, Cui H, Guan J, Liu C, Yang Z, Yuan J
EMBO Rep. 2021 Mar 4:e51660

Male and female gametocytes are sexual precursor cells essential for mosquito transmission of malaria parasite. Differentiation of gametocytes into fertile gametes (known as gametogenesis) relies on the gender-specific transcription program. How the parasites establish distinct repertoires of transcription in the male and female gametocytes remains largely unknown.

Estimating the extrinsic incubation period of malaria using a mechanistic model of sporogony

February 17, 2021 - 09:27 -- Open Access
Stopard IJ, Churcher TS, Lambert B
PLoS Comput Biol. 2021 Feb 16;17(2):e1008658

During sporogony, malaria-causing parasites infect a mosquito, reproduce and migrate to the mosquito salivary glands where they can be transmitted the next time blood feeding occurs. The time required for sporogony, known as the extrinsic incubation period (EIP), is an important determinant of malaria transmission intensity. The EIP is typically estimated as the time for a given percentile, x, of infected mosquitoes to develop salivary gland sporozoites (the infectious parasite life stage), which is denoted by EIPx. Many mechanisms, however, affect the observed sporozoite prevalence including the human-to-mosquito transmission probability and possibly differences in mosquito mortality according to infection status.


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