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Transmission-blocking compound candidates against Plasmodium vivax using P. berghei as an initial screening

February 11, 2021 - 09:21 -- Open Access
Fabbri C, Trindade AO, Andrade FS, Souza MF, Ríos-Velásquez CM, Lacerda MVG, Monteiro WM, Costa FTM, Amino R, Lopes SCP
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2021 Feb 8;116:e200513

Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes.

Assessment of ASHA for knowledge, diagnosis and treatment on malaria in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh as part of the malaria elimination demonstration project

February 10, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Harsh Rajvanshi, Kalyan B. Saha, Altaf A. Lal, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:78, 8 February 2021

The role of Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA) in the health care delivery services at the periphery level is crucial for achieving disease prevention, control and elimination goals. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices, priorities and capability of ASHA related to malaria diagnosis and treatment as part of the Malaria Elimination Demonstration Project in 1233 villages of district Mandla, Madhya Pradesh.

Spatial and temporal village-level prevalence of Plasmodium infection and associated risk factors in two districts of Meghalaya, India

February 8, 2021 - 10:48 -- Open Access
Anne Kessler, Badondor Shylla, Sandra Albert, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:70, 4 February 2021

Despite declining incidence over the past decade, malaria remains an important health burden in India. This study aimed to assess the village-level temporal patterns of Plasmodium infection in two districts of the north-eastern state of Meghalaya and evaluate risk factors that might explain these patterns.

The fibrinolytic system enables the onset of Plasmodium infection in the mosquito vector and the mammalian host

February 8, 2021 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Alves E Silva TL, Radtke A, Vega-Rodríguez J, et al.
Science Advances 05 Feb 2021, Vol. 7, no. 6, eabe3362

Plasmodium parasites must migrate across proteinaceous matrices to infect the mosquito and vertebrate hosts. Plasmin, a mammalian serine protease, degrades extracellular matrix proteins allowing cell migration through tissues. We report that Plasmodium gametes recruit human plasminogen to their surface where it is processed into plasmin by corecruited plasminogen activators. Inhibition of plasminogen activation arrests parasite development early during sexual reproduction, before ookinete formation.

Multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA panel for detecting mosquito-borne pathogens: Plasmodium sp. preserved and eluted from dried blood spots on sample cards

February 3, 2021 - 15:43 -- Open Access
Philip Koliopoulos, Neema Mathias Kayange, Stephan Gehring, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:66, 1 February 2021

Children are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria and other tropical, vector-borne diseases in low-resource countries. Infants presenting with acute onset fever represent a major sector of outpatient care in the Lake Victoria region. Misclassification and overuse of antibiotics and anti-malarial medications are consistent problems. Identifying the prevalent mosquito-borne pathogens in the region will reduce the prescription of non-indicated medicines.

NOT Open Access | Affinity purification of Plasmodium ookinetes from in vitro cultures using extracellular matrix gel

February 3, 2021 - 14:43 -- NOT Open Access
Recio-Tótoro B, Condé R, Claudio-Piedras F, Lanz-Mendoza H
Parasitol Int. 2021 Feb;80:102242

Malaria transmission depends on the parasites' successful invasion of the mosquito. This is achieved by the ookinete, a motile zygote that forms in the blood bolus after the mosquito takes an infectious blood meal. The ookinete invades the midgut epithelium and strongly attaches to the basal lamina, differentiating into an oocyst that produces the vertebrate-invasive sporozoites.

Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia

February 2, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 1;14(1):91

The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia’s Western Province.

Development of a single resistance to damage metric for mosquito nets related to physical integrity in the field

January 20, 2021 - 08:33 -- Open Access
Amy Wheldrake, Estelle Guillemois, Vera Chetty, Albert Kilian and Stephen J. Russell
Malaria Journal 2021 20:46, 19 January 2021

In common with the majority of personal protective equipment and healthcare products, the ability for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) to remain in good physical condition during use is a key factor governing fitness for purpose and serviceability. The inherent ability of a product to resist physical deterioration should be known in advance of it being used to ensure it has maximum value to both the end-user and procurer. The objective of this study was to develop a single performance metric of resistance to damage (RD) that can be applied to any LLIN product prior to distribution.

Monitoring mosquito nuisance for the development of a citizen science approach for malaria vector surveillance in Rwanda

January 13, 2021 - 10:10 -- Open Access
Marilyn Milumbu Murindahabi, Willem Takken, Constantianus J. M. Koenraadt, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:36, 10 January 2021

Many countries, including Rwanda, have mosquito monitoring programmes in place to support decision making in the fight against malaria. However, these programmes can be costly, and require technical (entomological) expertise. Involving citizens in data collection can greatly support such activities, but this has not yet been thoroughly investigated in a rural African context.

A minimal 3D model of mosquito flight behaviour around the human baited bed net

January 13, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Jeff Jones, Gregory P D Murray and Philip J McCall
Malaria Journal 2021 20:24, 7 January 2021

Advances in digitized video-tracking and behavioural analysis have enabled accurate recording and quantification of mosquito flight and host-seeking behaviours, facilitating development of individual (agent) based models at much finer spatial scales than previously possible.


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