We develop and analyze a deterministic ordinary differential equation mathematical model for the within-mosquito dynamics of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. Our model takes into account the action and effect of blood resident human-antibodies, ingested by the mosquito during a blood meal from humans, in inhibiting gamete fertilization. The model also captures subsequent developmental processes that lead to the different forms of the parasite within the mosquito. Continuous functions are used to model the switching transition from oocyst to sporozoites as well as human antibody density variations within the mosquito gut are proposed and used.
Hotspots constitute the major reservoir for residual malaria transmission, with higher malaria incidence than neighbouring areas, and therefore, have the potential to form the cornerstone for successful intervention strategies. Detection of malaria hotspots is hampered by their heterogenous spatial distribution, and the laborious nature and low sensitivity of the current methods used to assess transmission intensity.
The development of cryopreservation protocols for Anopheles gambiae could significantly improve research and control efforts. Cryopreservation of any An. gambiae life stage has yet to be successful. The unique properties of embryos have proven to be resistant to any practical cryoprotectant loading. Therefore, we have chosen to investigate early non-feeding first instar larvae as a potential life stage for cryopreservation.
This paper proposes a malaria transmission model to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in the human and mosquito populations. This model emphasizes the impact of limited resource on malaria transmission.
Malaria was once a serious public health problem in China, with Plasmodium vivax the major species responsible for more than 90% of local transmission. Following significant integrated malaria control and elimination programmes, malaria burden declined, and since 2017 China has not recorded any indigenous case. To understand the historical malaria transmission patterns and epidemic characteristics in China and insights useful to guide P. vivax malaria control and elimination elsewhere, a retrospective study was carried out.
Well-defined promoters are essential elements for genetic studies in all organisms, and enable controlled expression of endogenous genes, transgene expression, and gene editing. Despite this, there is a paucity of defined promoters for the rodent-infectious malaria parasites. This is especially true for Plasmodium yoelii, which is often used to study the mosquito and liver stages of malarial infection, as well as host immune responses to infection.
The heat shock protein family 70 (Hsp70) comprises chaperone proteins that play major multiple roles in Plasmodium asexual and sexual development. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Hsp70-1 in gametocytes, gametes, zygotes, and its participation in ookinete formation and their transition into oocysts. A monoclonal antibody against recombinant Hsp70-1 revealed its presence in zygotes and micronemes of ookinetes.
Despite the substantial progress achieved in the characterization of cytochrome P450 (CYP) -based resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes, a number of questions remain unanswered. These include: (i) the regulation and physiology of resistance conferring CYPs; (ii) the actual contribution of CYPs in resistance alone or in combination with other detoxification partners or other resistance mechanisms; (iii) the association between overexpression levels and allelic variation, with the catalytic activity and the intensity of resistance and (iv) the true value of molecular diagnostics targeting CYP markers, for driving decision making in the frame of Insecticide Resistance Management applications.
Malaria-causing parasites are transmitted from humans to mosquitoes when developmentally arrested gametocytes are taken up by a female Anopheles during a bloodmeal. The changes in environment from human to mosquito activate gametogenesis, including a drop in temperature, a rise in pH and a mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid. Signalling receptors have not been identified in malaria parasites but mounting evidence indicates that cGMP homeostasis is key to sensing extracellular cues in gametocytes.
Malaria infection by Plasmodium falciparum continues to afflict millions of people worldwide, with transmission dependent upon mosquito ingestion of the parasite gametocyte stage. These sexually committed stages develop from the asexual stages, yet the factors behind this transition are not completely understood. Here we find that lactic acid increases gametocyte quantity and quality in P. falciparum culture.