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NOT Open Access | Mathematical assessment of the impact of human-antibodies on sporogony during the within-mosquito dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

December 30, 2020 - 12:59 -- NOT Open Access
Teboh-Ewungkem MI, Woldegerima WA, Ngwa GA
J Theor Biol. 2020 Dec 22:110562

We develop and analyze a deterministic ordinary differential equation mathematical model for the within-mosquito dynamics of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. Our model takes into account the action and effect of blood resident human-antibodies, ingested by the mosquito during a blood meal from humans, in inhibiting gamete fertilization. The model also captures subsequent developmental processes that lead to the different forms of the parasite within the mosquito. Continuous functions are used to model the switching transition from oocyst to sporozoites as well as human antibody density variations within the mosquito gut are proposed and used.

Malaria hotspots explained from the perspective of ecological theory underlying insect foraging

December 10, 2020 - 09:54 -- Open Access
Debebe Y, Hill SR, Tekie H, Dugassa S, Hopkins RJ, Ignell R
Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 8;10(1):21449

Hotspots constitute the major reservoir for residual malaria transmission, with higher malaria incidence than neighbouring areas, and therefore, have the potential to form the cornerstone for successful intervention strategies. Detection of malaria hotspots is hampered by their heterogenous spatial distribution, and the laborious nature and low sensitivity of the current methods used to assess transmission intensity.

Physiological responses to cryoprotectant treatment in an early larval stage of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

December 8, 2020 - 10:20 -- Open Access
Campbell JB, Dosch A, Hunt CM, Dotson EM, Benedict MQ, Rajamohan A, Rinehart JP
Cryobiology. 2020 Dec 3:S0011-2240(20)30659-3

The development of cryopreservation protocols for Anopheles gambiae could significantly improve research and control efforts. Cryopreservation of any An. gambiae life stage has yet to be successful. The unique properties of embryos have proven to be resistant to any practical cryoprotectant loading. Therefore, we have chosen to investigate early non-feeding first instar larvae as a potential life stage for cryopreservation.

Backward bifurcation in a malaria transmission model

December 2, 2020 - 09:10 -- Open Access
Xing Y, Guo Z, Liu J
J Biol Dyn. 2020 Dec;14(1):368-388

This paper proposes a malaria transmission model to describe the dynamics of malaria transmission in the human and mosquito populations. This model emphasizes the impact of limited resource on malaria transmission.

From Plasmodium vivax outbreak to elimination: lessons learnt from a retrospective analysis of data from Guantang

November 24, 2020 - 15:00 -- Open Access
Guo-Jing Yang, Ying Liu, Le-Yuan Shang, Hong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Nong Zhou, Melissa A. Penny and Thomas A. Smith
Malaria Journal 2020 19:427, 23 November 2020

Malaria was once a serious public health problem in China, with Plasmodium vivax the major species responsible for more than 90% of local transmission. Following significant integrated malaria control and elimination programmes, malaria burden declined, and since 2017 China has not recorded any indigenous case. To understand the historical malaria transmission patterns and epidemic characteristics in China and insights useful to guide P. vivax malaria control and elimination elsewhere, a retrospective study was carried out.

Definition of constitutive and stage-enriched promoters in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii

November 24, 2020 - 14:54 -- Open Access
Laura M. Bowman, Logan E. Finger, Kevin J. Hart and Scott E. Lindner
Malaria Journal 2020 19:424, 23 November 2020

Well-defined promoters are essential elements for genetic studies in all organisms, and enable controlled expression of endogenous genes, transgene expression, and gene editing. Despite this, there is a paucity of defined promoters for the rodent-infectious malaria parasites. This is especially true for Plasmodium yoelii, which is often used to study the mosquito and liver stages of malarial infection, as well as host immune responses to infection.

NOT Open Access | Expression of Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70-1) in Plasmodium berghei ookinetes and its participation in midgut mosquito infection

November 7, 2020 - 12:32 -- NOT Open Access
Rodriguez MC, Martínez-Barnetche J, Lecona-Valera AN, Téllez-Sosa J, Argotte-Ramos RS, Alvarado-Delgado A, Ovilla MT, Saldaña-Navor V, Rodriguez MH
Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2020 Nov 1:111337

The heat shock protein family 70 (Hsp70) comprises chaperone proteins that play major multiple roles in Plasmodium asexual and sexual development. In this study, we analyzed the expression of Hsp70-1 in gametocytes, gametes, zygotes, and its participation in ookinete formation and their transition into oocysts. A monoclonal antibody against recombinant Hsp70-1 revealed its presence in zygotes and micronemes of ookinetes.

NOT Open Access | Cytochrome P450-based metabolic insecticide resistance in Anopheles and Aedes mosquito vectors: Muddying the waters

November 4, 2020 - 16:05 -- NOT Open Access
Vontas J, Katsavou E, Mavridis K
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2020 Nov;170:104666

Despite the substantial progress achieved in the characterization of cytochrome P450 (CYP) -based resistance mechanisms in mosquitoes, a number of questions remain unanswered. These include: (i) the regulation and physiology of resistance conferring CYPs; (ii) the actual contribution of CYPs in resistance alone or in combination with other detoxification partners or other resistance mechanisms; (iii) the association between overexpression levels and allelic variation, with the catalytic activity and the intensity of resistance and (iv) the true value of molecular diagnostics targeting CYP markers, for driving decision making in the frame of Insecticide Resistance Management applications.

cGMP homeostasis in malaria parasites - the key to perceiving and integrating environmental changes during transmission to the mosquito

October 31, 2020 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Brochet M, Balestra AC, Brusini L
Mol Microbiol. 2020 Oct 28

Malaria-causing parasites are transmitted from humans to mosquitoes when developmentally arrested gametocytes are taken up by a female Anopheles during a bloodmeal. The changes in environment from human to mosquito activate gametogenesis, including a drop in temperature, a rise in pH and a mosquito-derived molecule, xanthurenic acid. Signalling receptors have not been identified in malaria parasites but mounting evidence indicates that cGMP homeostasis is key to sensing extracellular cues in gametocytes.

NOT Open Access | Lactic acid supplementation increases quantity and quality of gametocytes in Plasmodium falciparum culture

October 21, 2020 - 09:20 -- NOT Open Access
West R, Sullivan DJ
Infect Immun. 2020 Oct 19:IAI.00635-20

Malaria infection by Plasmodium falciparum continues to afflict millions of people worldwide, with transmission dependent upon mosquito ingestion of the parasite gametocyte stage. These sexually committed stages develop from the asexual stages, yet the factors behind this transition are not completely understood. Here we find that lactic acid increases gametocyte quantity and quality in P. falciparum culture.


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