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Tanzania

On the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated wall liner and indoor residual spraying as additions to insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria: findings from cluster randomized trials in Tanzania

September 23, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mpangala KR, Halasa-Rappel YA, Shepard DS, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1666

Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.

Not Open Access | Degradation of endothelial glycocalyx in Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria

September 1, 2021 - 17:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bush MA, Florence SM, Yeo TW, Kalingonji AR, Chen Y, Granger DL, Rubach MP, Anstey NM, Mwaikambo ED, Weinberg JB
Reference: 
FASEB J. 2021 Sep;35(9):e21805

A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).

Effectiveness of a long-lasting insecticide treatment kit (ICON® Maxx) for polyester nets over three years of household use: a WHO phase III trial in Tanzania

August 25, 2021 - 17:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Wema Sudi, William Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:345, 19 August 2021

ICON® Maxx (Syngenta) is an insecticide treatment kit of pyrethroid and binding agent for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets. Interim recommendation for use on nets was granted by the World Health Organization (WHO) after successful evaluation in experimental huts following multiple washes. A full WHO recommendation is contingent upon demonstration of continued bio-efficacy after 3 years of use.

Acceptability of single screening and treatment policy for the control of malaria in pregnancy: perceptions of providers and pregnant women from selected health facilities in Lindi region, Tanzania

June 9, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chonge Kitojo, Frank Chacky, Emmanuel S. Kigadye, Joseph P. Mugasa, Abdallah Lusasi, Ally Mohamed, Erik J. Reaves, Julie R. Gutman and Deus S. Ishengoma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:256, 8 June 2021

Tanzania started implementing single screening and treatment (SST) for all pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visits in 2014, using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treating those who test positive according to the national guidelines. However, there is a paucity of data to show the acceptability of SST to both pregnant women and health care workers (HCWs), taking into consideration the shortage of workers and the added burden of this policy to the health system. This study assessed the perceptions and opinions of health service users and providers to determine the acceptability of SST policy.

Efficacy of interceptor® G2, a long-lasting insecticide mixture net treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin against Anopheles funestus: experimental hut trials in north-eastern Tanzania

April 14, 2021 - 07:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Elisante Michael, Wema Sudi, William W. Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:180, 9 April 2021

The effectiveness of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN), the primary method for preventing malaria in Africa, is compromised by evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance. Further gains require new insecticides with novel modes of action. Chlorfenapyr is a pyrrole insecticide that disrupts mitochrondrial function and confers no cross-resistance to neurotoxic insecticides. Interceptor® G2 LN (IG2) is an insecticide-mixture LLIN, which combines wash-resistant formulations of chlorfenapyr and the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin. The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes.

Prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania: An analysis of data from the 2015-16 Tanzania Demographic Health Survey and Malaria Indicators Survey

April 7, 2021 - 12:20 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Moshi FV
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Apr 6;16(4):e0249337

Early initiation of the antenatal clinic is vital as it allows early detection, management, and prevention of problems that may occur during pregnancy time. The analysis aimed to determine the prevalence and factors which influence early antenatal booking among women of reproductive age in Tanzania.

The consequences of declining population access to insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) on net use patterns and physical degradation of nets after 22 months of ownership

March 30, 2021 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Zawadi M. Mboma, Charles Festo, Sarah J. Moore, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:171, 29 March 2021

As insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) wear out and are disposed, some household members are prioritized to use remaining ITNs. This study assessed how nets are allocated within households to individuals of different age categories as ITNs are lost or damaged and as new ITNs are obtained. The study also explored how ITN allocation affects ITN durability.

Hybrid mosquitoes? Evidence from rural Tanzania on how local communities conceptualize and respond to modified mosquitoes as a tool for malaria control

March 10, 2021 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marceline F. Finda, Fredros O. Okumu, Elihaika Minja, Rukiyah Njalambaha, Winfrida Mponzi, Brian B. Tarimo, Prosper Chaki, Javier Lezaun, Ann H. Kelly and Nicola Christofides
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:134, 6 March 2021

Different forms of mosquito modifications are being considered as potential high-impact and low-cost tools for future malaria control in Africa. Although still under evaluation, the eventual success of these technologies will require high-level public acceptance. Understanding prevailing community perceptions of mosquito modification is, therefore, crucial for effective design and implementation of these interventions. This study investigated community perceptions regarding genetically-modified mosquitoes (GMMs) and their potential for malaria control in Tanzanian villages where no research or campaign for such technologies has yet been undertaken.

Efficacy of indoor residual spraying with broflanilide (TENEBENAL), a novel meta-diamide insecticide, against pyrethroid-resistant anopheline vectors in northern Tanzania: An experimental hut trial

March 9, 2021 - 15:59 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Snetselaar J, Rowland MW, Manunda BJ, Kisengwa EM, Small GJ, Malone DJ, Mosha FW, Kirby MJ
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 3;16(3):e0248026

Novel chemistry for vector control is urgently needed to counter insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. Here a new meta-diamide insecticide, broflanilide (TENEBENALTM), was evaluated in East African experimental huts in Moshi, northern Tanzania. Two consecutive experimental hut trials with broflanilide 50WP were conducted; the first evaluating the efficacy of three concentrations, 50 mg/m2, 100 mg/m2, and 200 mg/m2 using a prototype formulation, and the second trial evaluating an improved formulation.

Cerebrospinal fluid pterins, pterin-dependent neurotransmitters, and mortality in pediatric cerebral malaria

February 23, 2021 - 13:03 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Rubach MP, Mukemba JP, Granger DL, et al.
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 22:jiab086

Cerebral malaria (CM) pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Having shown low systemic levels of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an enzymatic cofactor for neurotransmitter synthesis, we hypothesized that BH4 and BH4-dependent neurotransmitters would likewise be low in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in CM.

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