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Tanzania

Not Open Access | Evaluation of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net Distribution Through Schools in Southern Tanzania

December 23, 2021 - 10:01 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Stuck L, Chacky F, Festo C, Lutambi A, Abdul R, Greer G, Mandike R, Nathan R, Elisaria E, Yukich J
Reference: 
Health Policy Plan. 2021 Dec 17:czab140

Universal coverage with effective vector control remains the mainstay of malaria vector control in sub-Saharan Africa Tanzania has utilized a number of mechanisms for the maintenance of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage over time. Schools have been identified as one potential channel for continuous distribution of LLIN. This research aims to evaluate an annual school based LLIN distribution programme in Tanzania which began in 2013, called the School Net Programme (SNP). Following each of the first four rounds of SNP distribution, a household survey was conducted in intervention and comparison districts in Southern and Lake zones of Tanzania (N = 5083 households).

Artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment outcomes among children infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mwanza, Tanzania

December 1, 2021 - 20:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Marwa KJ, Konje ET, Kapesa A, Kamugisha E, Mwita S, Swedberg G
Reference: 
Trop Med Health. 2021 Nov 27;49(1):94

Artemisinin based combination therapies (ACTs) have been a cornerstone in the treatment of malaria in the world. A rapid decline in dihydroartemisinin piperaquine (DHP) and artemether lumefantrine (ALU) efficacies has been reported in some parts of South East Asia, the historical epicenter for the antimalarial drug resistance. Prolonged drug use is associated with selection of resistant parasites due to exposure to inadequate drug levels hence effects on treatment outcomes in malaria. ALU and DHP are used as first line and alternative first line, respectively, in Tanzania. This study was carried in Igombe, Tanzania to assess the efficacies of ALU and DHP in routine treatment of uncomplicated malaria among children.

Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria, submicroscopic parasitaemia and anaemia in Korogwe District, north-eastern Tanzania

November 18, 2021 - 12:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Paul M. Hayuma, Christian W. Wang, Edwin Liheluka, Vito Baraka, Rashid A. Madebe, Daniel T. R. Minja, Gerald Misinzo, Michael Alifrangis and John P. A. Lusingu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:424, 29 October 2021

Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in two rural low (300 m above sea level) and highland (700 m asl) settings of Korogwe District north-eastern Tanzania.

NOT Open Access | Keep your natural enemies close - native predators can maintain low mosquito densities in temporary ponds in a malaria expansion area in Northern Tanzania

November 17, 2021 - 09:21 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Mataba GR, Kafula YA, Mwaijengo GN, Snoeks JM, Munishi L, Brendonck L, Vanschoenwinkel B
Reference: 
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Nov 10;794:148606

Mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit are a global public health threat that affects most human populations. Mosquito abundances are strongly linked to the number of suitable larval habitats available. However, it is still not well understood how different land uses impact larval habitat quality in different parts of the world. We investigated links between land use practices and abundance of mosquito larvae in temporary ponds located in different land uses in a malaria expansion zone in Tanzania. Temporary ponds are often cited as important sources of mosquitoes but are also of substantial conservation concern being home to a unique fauna and flora. Often, they also have high socio-economic importance.

Predictive markers of transmission in areas with different malaria endemicity in north-eastern Tanzania based on seroprevalence of antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

November 5, 2021 - 13:32 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kaaya RD, Kajeguka DC, Matowo JJ, Ndaro AJ, Mosha FW, Chilongola JO, Kavishe RA
Reference: 
BMC Res Notes. 2021 Oct 30;14(1):404

A community-based cross-sectional study was done to assess Plasmodium falciparum exposure in areas with different malaria endemicity in north-eastern Tanzania using serological markers; PfAMA-1 and PfMSP-119.

Safety monitoring experience of single-low dose primaquine co-administered with artemether–lumefantrine among providers and patients in routine healthcare practice: a qualitative study in Eastern Tanzania

October 23, 2021 - 18:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Dominic Mosha, Mwaka A. Kakolwa, Muhidin K. Mahende, Honorati Masanja, Salim Abdulla, Chris Drakeley, Roland Gosling and Joyce Wamoyi
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:392, 9 October 2021

Primaquine is a gametocytocidal drug recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in a single-low dose combined with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for the treatment and prevention of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission. Safety monitoring concerns and the lack of a universal validated and approved primaquine pharmacovigilance tool is a challenge for a national rollout in many countries. This study aimed to explore the acceptance, reliability and perceived effectiveness of the primaquine roll out monitoring pharmacovigilance tool (PROMPT).

On the cost-effectiveness of insecticide-treated wall liner and indoor residual spraying as additions to insecticide treated bed nets to prevent malaria: findings from cluster randomized trials in Tanzania

September 23, 2021 - 09:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mpangala KR, Halasa-Rappel YA, Shepard DS, et al.
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 14;21(1):1666

Despite widespread use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and other tools, malaria caused 409,000 deaths worldwide in 2019. While indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective supplement, IRS is moderately expensive and logistically challenging. In endemic areas, IRS requires yearly application just before the main rainy season and potential interim reapplications. A new technology, insecticide-treated wall liner (ITWL), might overcome these challenges.

Not Open Access | Degradation of endothelial glycocalyx in Tanzanian children with falciparum malaria

September 1, 2021 - 17:34 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Bush MA, Florence SM, Yeo TW, Kalingonji AR, Chen Y, Granger DL, Rubach MP, Anstey NM, Mwaikambo ED, Weinberg JB
Reference: 
FASEB J. 2021 Sep;35(9):e21805

A layer of glycocalyx covers the vascular endothelium serving important protective and homeostatic functions. The objective of this study was to determine if breakdown of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC) occurs during malaria infection in children. Measures of eGC integrity, endothelial activation, and microvascular reactivity were prospectively evaluated in 146 children: 44 with moderately severe malaria (MSM), 42 with severe malaria (SM), and 60 healthy controls (HC).

Effectiveness of a long-lasting insecticide treatment kit (ICON® Maxx) for polyester nets over three years of household use: a WHO phase III trial in Tanzania

August 25, 2021 - 17:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Patrick K. Tungu, Wema Sudi, William Kisinza and Mark Rowland
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:345, 19 August 2021

ICON® Maxx (Syngenta) is an insecticide treatment kit of pyrethroid and binding agent for long-lasting treatment of mosquito nets. Interim recommendation for use on nets was granted by the World Health Organization (WHO) after successful evaluation in experimental huts following multiple washes. A full WHO recommendation is contingent upon demonstration of continued bio-efficacy after 3 years of use.

Acceptability of single screening and treatment policy for the control of malaria in pregnancy: perceptions of providers and pregnant women from selected health facilities in Lindi region, Tanzania

June 9, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Chonge Kitojo, Frank Chacky, Emmanuel S. Kigadye, Joseph P. Mugasa, Abdallah Lusasi, Ally Mohamed, Erik J. Reaves, Julie R. Gutman and Deus S. Ishengoma
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:256, 8 June 2021

Tanzania started implementing single screening and treatment (SST) for all pregnant women attending their first antenatal care (ANC) visits in 2014, using malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and treating those who test positive according to the national guidelines. However, there is a paucity of data to show the acceptability of SST to both pregnant women and health care workers (HCWs), taking into consideration the shortage of workers and the added burden of this policy to the health system. This study assessed the perceptions and opinions of health service users and providers to determine the acceptability of SST policy.

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