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avian malaria

NOT Open Access | Stress in paradise: effects of elevated corticosterone on immunity and avian malaria resilience in a Hawaiian passerine

September 30, 2021 - 11:11 -- NOT Open Access
Names GR, Schultz EM, Krause JS, Hahn TP, Wingfield JC, Heal M, Cornelius JM, Klasing KC, Hunt KE
J Exp Biol. 2021 Sep 23:jeb.242951

Vertebrates confronted with challenging environments often experience an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, which result in morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes that promote survival. However, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can suppress immunity, which may increase susceptibility to disease. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) have undergone strong selection by avian malaria and evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while populations at high elevation with few vectors have not undergone selection and remain susceptible.

Classification for avian malaria parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum blood stages by using deep convolutional neural networks

August 25, 2021 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Kittichai V, Kaewthamasorn M, Thanee S, Jomtarak R, Klanboot K, Naing KM, Tongloy T, Chuwongin S, Boonsang S
Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 19;11(1):16919

The infection of an avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium gallinaceum) in domestic chickens presents a major threat to the poultry industry because it causes economic loss in both the quality and quantity of meat and egg production. Computer-aided diagnosis has been developed to automatically identify avian malaria infections and classify the blood infection stage development. In this study, four types of deep convolutional neural networks, namely Darknet, Darknet19, Darknet19-448 and Densenet201 are used to classify P. gallinaceum blood stages.

NOT Open Access | Rediscovery of Plasmodium (Huffia) huffi (Apicomplexa, Haemosporida): a lost lineage from toucans

August 10, 2021 - 18:39 -- NOT Open Access
Cedrola F, Martinele I, Senra MVX, Furtado EJO, D Agosto M, Dias RJP
Parasitol Res. 2021 Aug 10

Literature data on toucans haemosporidians are scarce and all reports come from investigations in Brazil. Muniz et al. (Rev Bras Malariol 3: 339-356, Muniz et al., Rev Bras Malariol 3:339-356, 1951) and Muniz and Soares (Rev Bras Malar 611-617, Muniz J, Soares R de RL (1954) Nota sôbre um parasita do gênero Plasmodium encontrado no Ramphastos toco Müller, 1776, "Tucano-Açu", e diferente do Plasmodium huffi: Plasmodium pinottii n. sp. Rev Bras Malar 611 - 617.) described two Plasmodium species, P. huffi and P. pinottii, in Ramphastos toco. Later, Manwell and Sessler (J Protozol 18: 570-574, Manwell and Sessler, Malaria Parasites of Toucans J Protozol 18:570-574, 1971) established a new subspecies, P. nucleophilum toucani.

Haemoproteosis and avian malaria in Columbidae and Corvidae from Iran

July 14, 2021 - 10:48 -- Open Access
Nourani L, Baghkheirati AA, Zargar M, Karimi V, Djadid ND
Vet Med Sci. 2021 Jul 8

Avian malaria (Plasmodium) and related genera (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) are diverse and widespread parasites. Despite the extent of knowledge on avian haemosporidian parasites, information about domestic and wild bird's blood parasites is overall insufficient in Iran. Prevalence of the haemosporidian parasites' and phylogenetic relationship of lineages are studied by using molecular and morphological results of 152 examined hosts belonging to 17 species.

Low MSP-1 haplotype diversity in the West Palearctic population of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum

June 16, 2021 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Olof Hellgren, Victor Kelbskopf, Vincenzo A. Ellis, Arif Ciloglu, Mélanie Duc, Xi Huang, Ricardo J. Lopes, Vanessa A. Mata, Sargis A. Aghayan, Abdullah Inci and Sergei V. Drovetski
Malaria Journal 2021 20:265, 12 June 2021

Although avian Plasmodium species are widespread and common across the globe, limited data exist on how genetically variable their populations are. Here, the hypothesis that the avian blood parasite Plasmodium relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area (from Morocco to Sweden in the north and Transcaucasia in the east) was tested.

Shifts in Gene Expression Variability in the blood-stage of Plasmodium relictum

May 26, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Kalbskopf V, Ahrén D, Valkiūnas G, Palinauskas V, Hellgren O
Gene. 2021 May 18:145723

Avian malaria is a common and widespread disease of birds caused by a diverse group of pathogens of the genera Plasmodium. We investigated the transcriptomal profiles of one of the most common species, Plasmodium relictum, lineage SGS1, at multiple timepoints during the blood stages of the infection under experimental settings.

Avian malaria affecting penguins in zoological gardens, aquariums and wildlife parks in the UK

May 25, 2021 - 15:15 -- Open Access
Hernandez-Colina A, Gonzalez-Olvera M, Eckley L, Lopez J, Baylis M
Vet Rec. 2021 May 21:e511

Avian malaria has caused mortalities in captive penguins worldwide and it is a conservation threat for some wild penguins. The experience of staff working on penguins is highly valuable for the improvement of captivity conditions.

Gene regulation of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, during the different stages within the mosquito vector

May 25, 2021 - 14:47 -- Open Access
Sekar V, Rivero A, Pigeault R, Gandon S, Drews A, Ahren D, Hellgren O
Genomics. 2021 May 20:S0888-7543(21)00194-4

The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum is one of the most widespread species of avian malaria. As is the case in its human counterparts, bird Plasmodium undergoes a complex life cycle infecting two hosts: the arthropod vector and the vertebrate host. In this study, we examined transcriptomes of P. relictum (SGS1) during crucial timepoints within its vector, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.

Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

May 25, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Feng X, López Del Amo V, Mameli E, Lee M, Bishop AL, Perrimon N, Gantz VM
Nat Commun. 2021 May 20;12(1):2960

Culex mosquitoes are a global vector for multiple human and animal diseases, including West Nile virus, lymphatic filariasis, and avian malaria, posing a constant threat to public health, livestock, companion animals, and endangered birds. While rising insecticide resistance has threatened the control of Culex mosquitoes, advances in CRISPR genome-editing tools have fostered the development of alternative genetic strategies such as gene drive systems to fight disease vectors.

NOT Open Access | Loss of forest cover and host functional diversity increases prevalence of avian malaria parasites in the Atlantic Forest

March 17, 2021 - 17:12 -- NOT Open Access
Fecchio A, Lima MR, De La Torre GM, et al.
Int J Parasitol. 2021 Mar 12:S0020-7519(21)00093-X

Host phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity are thought to contribute to parasite community assembly and infection rates. However, recent landscape level anthropogenic changes may disrupt host-parasite systems by impacting functional and phylogenetic diversity of host communities. We examined whether changes in host functional and phylogenetic diversity, forest cover, and minimum temperature influence the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) across 18 avian communities in the Atlantic Forest.


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