Vertebrates confronted with challenging environments often experience an increase in circulating glucocorticoids, which result in morphological, physiological, and behavioral changes that promote survival. However, chronically elevated glucocorticoids can suppress immunity, which may increase susceptibility to disease. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) have undergone strong selection by avian malaria and evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while populations at high elevation with few vectors have not undergone selection and remain susceptible.
The infection of an avian malaria parasite (Plasmodium gallinaceum) in domestic chickens presents a major threat to the poultry industry because it causes economic loss in both the quality and quantity of meat and egg production. Computer-aided diagnosis has been developed to automatically identify avian malaria infections and classify the blood infection stage development. In this study, four types of deep convolutional neural networks, namely Darknet, Darknet19, Darknet19-448 and Densenet201 are used to classify P. gallinaceum blood stages.
Literature data on toucans haemosporidians are scarce and all reports come from investigations in Brazil. Muniz et al. (Rev Bras Malariol 3: 339-356, Muniz et al., Rev Bras Malariol 3:339-356, 1951) and Muniz and Soares (Rev Bras Malar 611-617, Muniz J, Soares R de RL (1954) Nota sôbre um parasita do gênero Plasmodium encontrado no Ramphastos toco Müller, 1776, "Tucano-Açu", e diferente do Plasmodium huffi: Plasmodium pinottii n. sp. Rev Bras Malar 611 - 617.) described two Plasmodium species, P. huffi and P. pinottii, in Ramphastos toco. Later, Manwell and Sessler (J Protozol 18: 570-574, Manwell and Sessler, Malaria Parasites of Toucans J Protozol 18:570-574, 1971) established a new subspecies, P. nucleophilum toucani.
Avian malaria (Plasmodium) and related genera (Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon) are diverse and widespread parasites. Despite the extent of knowledge on avian haemosporidian parasites, information about domestic and wild bird's blood parasites is overall insufficient in Iran. Prevalence of the haemosporidian parasites' and phylogenetic relationship of lineages are studied by using molecular and morphological results of 152 examined hosts belonging to 17 species.
Although avian Plasmodium species are widespread and common across the globe, limited data exist on how genetically variable their populations are. Here, the hypothesis that the avian blood parasite Plasmodium relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area (from Morocco to Sweden in the north and Transcaucasia in the east) was tested.
Avian malaria is a common and widespread disease of birds caused by a diverse group of pathogens of the genera Plasmodium. We investigated the transcriptomal profiles of one of the most common species, Plasmodium relictum, lineage SGS1, at multiple timepoints during the blood stages of the infection under experimental settings.
Avian malaria has caused mortalities in captive penguins worldwide and it is a conservation threat for some wild penguins. The experience of staff working on penguins is highly valuable for the improvement of captivity conditions.
The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum is one of the most widespread species of avian malaria. As is the case in its human counterparts, bird Plasmodium undergoes a complex life cycle infecting two hosts: the arthropod vector and the vertebrate host. In this study, we examined transcriptomes of P. relictum (SGS1) during crucial timepoints within its vector, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.
Culex mosquitoes are a global vector for multiple human and animal diseases, including West Nile virus, lymphatic filariasis, and avian malaria, posing a constant threat to public health, livestock, companion animals, and endangered birds. While rising insecticide resistance has threatened the control of Culex mosquitoes, advances in CRISPR genome-editing tools have fostered the development of alternative genetic strategies such as gene drive systems to fight disease vectors.
Host phylogenetic relatedness and ecological similarity are thought to contribute to parasite community assembly and infection rates. However, recent landscape level anthropogenic changes may disrupt host-parasite systems by impacting functional and phylogenetic diversity of host communities. We examined whether changes in host functional and phylogenetic diversity, forest cover, and minimum temperature influence the prevalence, diversity, and distributions of avian haemosporidian parasites (genera Haemoproteus and Plasmodium) across 18 avian communities in the Atlantic Forest.