Over the last few decades, a substantial number of anti-malarial effector genes have been evaluated for their ability to block parasite infection in the mosquito vector. While many of these approaches have yielded significant effects on either parasite intensity or prevalence of infection, just a few have been able to completely block transmission.
Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria, which affects one-fifth of the world population. A comprehensive understanding of mosquito behaviour is essential for the development of novel tools for vector control and surveillance. Despite abundant research on mosquito behaviour, little is known on the stimuli that drive malaria vectors during the landing phase of host-seeking.
Malaria transmission depends on infected mosquitoes and can be controlled by transmission-blocking drugs. The recently discovered FREP1-mediated malaria transmission pathway is an excellent target to screen drugs for limiting transmission.
Innovative antimalarial strategies are urgently needed given the alarming evolution of resistance to every single drug developed against Plasmodium parasites. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan heparin has been delivered in membrane feeding assays together with Plasmodium berghei-infected blood to Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes.
The findings show that the spatial outcomes of productive habitats can be made starkly apparent through initial habitat modelling and resulting time-series output. However, mosquito control resources are often limited and it is at this point that the Local Moran’s I statistics demonstrates its value.
Here, we argue that recent and continuing progress in our understanding of male mating biology is instrumental in the implementation of new approaches based on the release of either conventional sterile or genetically engineered males.
Our model considers disease-related deaths, asymptomatic immune humans who are also infectious, as well as mosquito demography, reproduction and feeding habits.
Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes.
The transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum from the human to the mosquito is mediated by dormant sexual precursor cells, the gametocytes, which become activated in the mosquito midgut.