Anopheles darlingi is considered the main vector of malaria in the Neotropical region, so knowledge of its distribution in the Americas is highly relevant for the design of strategies for prevention and control of the illness.
Taxonomic reassignments were suggested for Neotropical anopheline malaria vectors, elevating four monophyletic groups Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia, Nyssorhynchus, and Stethomyia to the genus level, upending their conventional status as subgenera of the genus Anopheles.
Flight tones play important roles in mosquito reproduction. Several mosquito species utilise flight tones for mate localisation and attraction. Typically, the female wingbeat frequency (WBF) is lower than males, and stereotypic acoustic behaviors are instrumental for successful copulation. Mosquito WBFs are usually an important species characteristic, with female flight tones used as male attractants in surveillance traps for species identification. Anopheles darlingi is an important Latin American malaria vector, but we know little about its mating behaviors.
Microorganisms living in the midgut of Anopheles mosquitoes have been studied to fight vector-borne diseases, such as malaria. Studies on the microbiota of the Neotropical Anopheles darlingi, the most important Brazilian vector for malaria, have been reported for the same purpose. Our aims were to isolate and identify culturable bacteria from An. darlingi mosquito guts through their feces and to estimate the species richness and the frequency distribution of the sampled bacteria.
Malaria remains a major public health problem in South America, mostly in the Amazon region. Among newly proposed ways of controlling malaria transmission to humans, paratransgenesis is a promising alternative. Paratransgenesis aims to inhibit the development of parasites within the vector through the action of genetically modified bacteria. The first step towards successful paratransgenesis in the Amazon is the identification of Anopheles darlingi symbiotic bacteria, which are transmitted vertically among mosquitoes, and are not pathogenic to humans.
In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been made towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to control or eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi.
Several experiments with Anopheles darlingi Root, an important malaria vector in the Amazon region, were carried out in the laboratory, depending on the large-scale production of viable larvae and adults. Certainly, improvements in rearing conditions, including dietary requirements, can strongly affect mosquito production.
Due to ethical issues associated with the use of blood for mosquito laboratory experiments, an artificial diet that supports the production of eggs and larvae is highly desirable.
Malaria remains an important public health problem in Latin America, and the development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors poses a major threat to malaria elimination efforts. Monitoring of insecticide susceptibility and the determination of the mechanisms involved in insecticide resistance are needed to effectively guide the deployment of appropriate vector control measures. Here, molecular assays have been developed to screen for mutations associated with insecticide resistance on the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase-1 (Ace-1) genes in four malaria vectors from Latin America.
The mosquito An. darlingi larval habitats were found in different hydrological types.