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an. gambiae

In vivo functional validation of the V402L voltage gated sodium channel mutation in the malaria vector An. gambiae

December 1, 2021 - 20:19 -- Open Access
Williams J, Cowlishaw R, Sanou A, Ranson H, Grigoraki L
Pest Manag Sci. 2021 Nov 25

Pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides for the control of malaria transmitting Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and rapid increase in resistance to this insecticide class is of major concern. Pyrethroids target the Voltage Gated Sodium Channels (VGSCs), that have a key role in the normal function of the mosquitoes' nervous system. VGSC mutations L995F and L995S have long been associated with pyrethroid resistance and screening for their presence is routine in insecticide resistance management programs. Recently, a VGSC haplotype containing two amino acid substitutions associated with resistance in other species, V402L and I1527T, was identified. These two VGSC mutations are found in tight linkage and are mutually exclusive to the classical L995F/S mutations.

NOT Open Access | Novel genotyping approaches to easily detect genomic admixture between the major Afrotropical malaria vector species, Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae

February 16, 2021 - 15:44 -- NOT Open Access
Caputo B, Pichler V, Bottà G, De Marco C, Hubbart C, Perugini E, Pinto J, Rockett KA, Miles A, Della Torre A
Mol Ecol Resour. 2021 Feb 15

The two most efficient and most recently radiated Afrotropical vectors of human malaria - Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae - are identified by single-locus diagnostic PCR assays based on species-specific markers in a 4 Mb region on chromosome-X centromere. Inherently, these diagnostic assays cannot detect interspecific autosomal admixture shown to be extensive at the westernmost and easternmost extremes of the species range.

Induction of long-lived potential aestivation states in laboratory An. gambiae mosquitoes

August 17, 2020 - 13:42 -- Open Access
Krajacich BJ, Sullivan M, Faiman R, Veru L, Graber L, Lehmann T
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 12;13(1):412

How anopheline mosquitoes persist through the long dry season in Africa remains a gap in our understanding of these malaria vectors. To span this period in locations such as the Sahelian zone of Mali, mosquitoes must either migrate to areas of permanent water, recolonize areas as they again become favorable, or survive in harsh conditions including high temperatures, low humidity, and an absence of surface water (required for breeding). Adult mosquitoes surviving through this season must dramatically extend their typical lifespan (averaging 2–3 weeks) to 7 months. Previous work has found evidence that the malaria mosquito An. coluzzii, survives over 200 days in the wild between rainy seasons in a presumed state of aestivation (hibernation), but this state has so far not been replicated in laboratory conditions. The inability to recapitulate aestivation in the lab hinders addressing key questions such as how this state is induced, how it affects malaria vector competence, and its impact on disease transmission.

Malaria Vectors and Vector Surveillance in Limpopo Province (South Africa): 1927 to 2018

June 15, 2020 - 15:21 -- Open Access
Braack L, Bornman R, Jager C, et al.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jun 9; 17(11):E4125

Despite the annual implementation of a robust and extensive indoor residual spraying programme against malaria vectors in Limpopo Province (South Africa), significant transmission continues and is a serious impediment to South Africa’s malaria elimination objectives. In order to gain a better understanding regarding possible causes of this residual malaria, we conducted a literature review of the historical species composition and abundance of malaria vector mosquitoes in the Limpopo River Valley region of the Vhembe District, northern Limpopo Province, the region with the highest remaining annual malaria cases in South Africa.

Effect of ivermectin on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus

March 12, 2016 - 15:02 -- Open Access
Derua Y, Malongo B, Simonsen P
Parasites & Vectors 2016, 9 :131 (8 March 2016)

This study assessed the survival of larvae of Anopheles gambiae Giles and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, when exposed to low concentrations of ivermectin under laboratory conditions.

Evidence of multiple mechanisms providing carbamate and organophosphate resistance in field An. gambiae population from Atacora in Benin

December 19, 2014 - 17:42 -- Open Access
Rock Aïkpon, Michel Sèzonlin, Razaki Ossè, Martin Akogbéto
Parasites & Vectors 2014, 7:568 (2 December 2014)

The aim of this study is to better understand the origins of carbamate and organophosphate resistance in An. gambiae population from Atacora, Benin in West Africa.

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