Advanced Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer with a poor prognosis. The anti-malaria compounds dihydroartemisinin (DHA) have shown to regulate multiple targets and signaling pathways in cancers, but a global view of its mechanism of action remains elusive. In present study, we integrated network pharmacology and in vitro and in vivo experimental models to investigate the mechanisms of DHA in preventing NSCLC proliferation.
As artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) are compromised by resistance, we are evaluating triple combination therapies (TACTs) comprising an amino-artemisinin, a redox drug, and a third drug with a different mode of action. Thus, here we briefly review efficacy data on artemisone, artemiside, other amino-artemisinins, and 11-aza-artemisinin and conduct absorption, distribution, and metabolism and excretion (ADME) profiling in vitro and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiling in vivo via intravenous (i.v.) and oral (p.o.) administration to mice.
Currently, conjugation of artemisinin-derived dimers, trimers, and tetramers is a viable strategy for developing new effective antimalarial candidates. Furthermore, nanotechnology is an effective means to achieve intravenous administration of hydrophobic drugs. In this paper, an ester-linked dihydroartemisinin trimer (DHA3) was synthesized and further prepared as self-assembled nanoparticles (DHA3NPs) by a one-step nanoprecipitation method. The pharmacokinetics and antimalarial pharmacodynamics of DHA3NPs were studied in rats and mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii BY265 (PyBY265). DHA3NPs had a regular spherical shape with a uniform size distribution of 140.27 ± 3.59 nm, entrapment efficiency (EE) of 99.63 ± 0.17%, and drug loading efficiency (DL) of 79.62 ± 0.11%.
Malaria parasites are known to be vulnerable to oxidative stress. In this study, the effects of the administration of α-tocopheryloxy acetic acid (α-TEA), which is a vitamin E analogue mitocan, on Plasmodium yoelii infection in mice were examined.
Artemisinin and its semisynthetic derivatives (ART) are fast acting, potent antimalarials; however, their use in malaria treatment is frequently confounded by recrudescences from bloodstream Plasmodium parasites that enter into and later reactivate from a dormant persister state. Here, we provide evidence that the mitochondria of dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-exposed persisters are dramatically altered and enlarged relative to the mitochondria of young, actively replicating ring forms. Restructured mitochondrial-nuclear associations and an altered metabolic state are consistent with stress from reactive oxygen species.
The present study was to investigate whether dihydroartemisinin (DHA), which is a highly effective and safe drug in the treatment of malaria, could be repurposed for the treatment of skin fibrosis and vascular dysfunction in systemic sclerosis (SSc).
Plasmodium falciparum from the Greater Mekong subregion has evolved resistance to the artemisinin-based combination therapy dihydroartemisinin and the partner drug piperaquine. To monitor the potential westward spread or independent evolution of piperaquine resistance, we evaluated the in vitro susceptibility of 120 P. falciparum isolates collected at the China-Myanmar border during 2007-2016.
Rabies is caused by infection of rabies virus (RABV) and remains a serious threat to the global public health. Except for the requirement for cold chain and high cost of human rabies immune globulin, no small molecule drugs are currently available for clinical treatment of rabies. So, it is of great importance to identify novel compounds that can effectively inhibit RABV infection. Artesunate (ART) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), two derivatives of artemisinin, are widely used for treatment of malaria in adults and children, showing high safety. In this study, we found that both ART and DHA were able to inhibit RABV replication in host cells at a low concentration (0.1 μmol/L).
For treatment of severe malaria, the WHO recommends 3 mg/kg intravenous artesunate in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg.
Leishmaniasis is one of the most neglected parasitic infections of the world and current therapeutic options show several limitations. In the search for more effective drugs, plant compounds represent a powerful natural source. Artemisinin is a sesquiterpene lactone extracted from Artemisia annua L. leaves, from which dihydroartemisinin (DQHS) and artesunic acid (AA)/artesunate are examples of active derivatives.