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Determinants of brain swelling in pediatric and adult cerebral malaria

September 23, 2021 - 10:26 -- Open Access
Sahu PK, Duffy FJ, Wassmer SC, et al.
JCI Insight. 2021 Sep 22;6(18):e145823

Cerebral malaria (CM) affects children and adults, but brain swelling is more severe in children. To investigate features associated with brain swelling in malaria, we performed blood profiling and brain MRI in a cohort of pediatric and adult patients with CM in Rourkela, India, and compared them with an African pediatric CM cohort in Malawi. We determined that higher plasma Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) levels and elevated var transcripts that encode for binding to endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) were linked to CM at both sites.

Safety and PCR monitoring in 161 semi-immune Kenyan adults following controlled human malaria infection

July 20, 2021 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Kapulu MC, Njuguna P, Hamaluba M, Kimani D, Ngoi JM, Musembi J, Ngoto O, Otieno E, Billingsley PF
JCI Insight. 2021 Jul 15:146443

Naturally acquired immunity to malaria is incompletely understood. We used controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) to study the impact of past exposure to malaria in Kenyan adults in relation to infection with a non-Kenyan parasite strain.

Malian adults maintain serologic responses to virulent PfEMP1s amid seasonal patterns of fluctuation

July 20, 2021 - 11:54 -- Open Access
Ventimiglia NT, Stucke EM, Travassos MA, et al.
Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 13;11(1):14401

Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1s (PfEMP1s), diverse malaria proteins expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface, play an important role in pathogenesis, mediating adhesion to host vascular endothelium. Antibodies to particular non-CD36-binding PfEMP1s are associated with protection against severe disease.

Early whole blood transcriptional responses to radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite vaccination in malaria naïve and malaria pre-exposed adult volunteers

July 14, 2021 - 11:01 -- Open Access
Fergal J. Duffy, Ying Du, Jason Carnes, Judith E. Epstein, Stephen L. Hoffman, Salim Abdulla, Said Jongo, Maxmillian Mpina, Claudia Daubenberger, John D. Aitchison and Ken Stuart
Malaria Journal 2021 20:308, 9 July 2021

Vaccination with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites is known to induce protective immunity. However, the mechanisms underlying this protection remain unclear. In this work, two recent radiation-attenuated sporozoite vaccination studies were used to identify potential transcriptional correlates of vaccination-induced protection.

Socio-economic and household determinants of malaria in adults aged 45 and above: analysis of longitudinal ageing survey in India, 2017–2018

July 14, 2021 - 10:56 -- Open Access
Indumathi Mohan, Naveen Kumar Kodali, Savitha Chellappan, Balasubramani Karuppusamy, Sujit Kumar Behera, Gopalan Natarajan and Praveen Balabaskaran Nina
Malaria Journal 2021 20:306, 7 July 2021

Even though malaria cases have drastically come down in the last decade, malaria remains a serious public health concern in many parts of India. National Framework for Malaria Elimination in India (2016–2030) has been launched with the goal to eliminate malaria by 2030. Understanding the socio-economic and household determinants of malaria at the national level will greatly aid India’s malaria elimination efforts.

The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax among adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

July 14, 2021 - 10:15 -- Open Access
Brazeau NF, Mitchell CL, Juliano JJ, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 Jul 7;12(1):4169

Reports of P. vivax infections among Duffy-negative hosts have accumulated throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this growing body of evidence, no nationally representative epidemiological surveys of P. vivax in sub-Saharan Africa have been performed. To overcome this gap in knowledge, we screened over 17,000 adults in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) for P. vivax using samples from the 2013-2014 Demographic Health Survey.

NOT Open Access | Epitope-Specific Antibody Responses to a Plasmodium falciparum Subunit Vaccine Target in a Malaria-Endemic Population

June 9, 2021 - 07:28 -- NOT Open Access
Friedman-Klabanoff DJ, Travassos MA, Berry AA, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 Jun 4;223(11):1943-1947

Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) coats the Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite surface and is a major malaria subunit vaccine target. We measured epitope-specific reactivity to field-derived CSP haplotypes in serum samples from Malian adults and children on a custom peptide microarray. Compared to children, adults showed greater antibody responses and responses to more variants in regions proximal to and within the central repeat region.

NOT Open Access | Effects of nanocapsules of poly-ε-caprolactone containing artemisinin on zebrafish early-life stages and adults

February 23, 2021 - 14:08 -- NOT Open Access
Charlie-Silva I, Feitosa NM, Malafaia G, et al.
Sci Total Environ. 2021 Feb 20;756:143851

Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. plants has a range of properties that qualifies it to treat several diseases, such as malaria and cancer. However, it has short half-life, which requires making continuous use of it, which has motivated the association of artemisinin (ART) with polymeric nanoparticles to increase its therapeutic efficiency.

Evaluation of malaria preventive measures among adult patients attending the Bamendjou and Foumbot district hospitals of the West Region of Cameroon

January 27, 2021 - 15:44 -- Open Access
Nfor Omarine Nlinwe, Yengong Clinton Singong and Tenkam Makamdoum Ruth Florentine
Malaria Journal 2021 20:60, 22 January 2021

Although a significant decrease in entomological and epidemiological indicators was reported in Cameroon since the introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets, malaria prevalence remains high also in some parts of the West Region of Cameroon. This study was designed to evaluate malaria preventive measures among patients attending the Bamendjou and Foumbot District hospitals of the West Region of Cameroon.

Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals Different Courses of Disease in Pediatric and Adult Cerebral Malaria

December 16, 2020 - 12:16 -- Open Access
Sahu PK, Hoffmann A, Wassmer SC, et al.
Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 16:ciaa1647

Cerebral malaria is a common presentation of severe Plasmodium falciparum infection and remains an important cause of death in the tropics. Key aspects of its pathogenesis are still incompletely understood, but severe brain swelling identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was associated with a fatal outcome in African children. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations failed to identify cerebral features associated with fatality in Asian adults.


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