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resistance

Assessment of the Feasibility, Acceptability, and Impact of Implementing Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention in Nampula Province, Mozambique: Protocol for a Hybrid Effectiveness-Implementation Study

September 23, 2021 - 09:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Wharton-Smith A, Baker K, Candrinho B, et al.
Reference: 
JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Sep 15;10(9):e27855

Malaria is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children aged under 5 years in Mozambique. The World Health Organization recommends seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC), the administration of four monthly courses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and amodiaquine (AQ), to children aged 3-59 months during rainy season. However, as resistance to SP is widespread in East and Southern Africa, SMC has so far only been implemented across the Sahel in West Africa.

New Insights into the Spread of Resistance to Artemisinin and its Analogues

September 15, 2021 - 12:04 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Noreen N, Ullah A, Salman SM, Mabkhot Y, Alsayari A, Badshah SL
Reference: 
J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Sep 10:S2213-7165(21)00208-3

The causative agent of malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has been developing resistance to several drugs worldwide since more than five decades. Initially, resistance was toward drugs such as chloroquine, pyrimethamine, sulfadoxine, mefloquine, and quinine. Research studies are now reporting the resistance of parasites to the most effective and novel drug used against malaria infection worldwide, that is, artemisinin; for this reason, the first-line treatment strategy, including artemisinin combination therapy, is becoming unsuccessful in areas where drug resistance is highly prevalent.

Antimalarial drug resistance in the Central and Adamawa regions of Cameroon: Prevalence of mutations in P. falciparum crt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes

August 25, 2021 - 16:18 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tuedom AGB, Sarah-Matio EM, Nsango SE, et al.
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Aug 19;16(8):e0256343

The spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistant parasites remains one of the major challenges for malaria control and elimination in Sub Saharan Africa. Monitoring of molecular markers conferring resistance to different antimalarials is important to track the spread of resistant parasites and to optimize the therapeutic lifespan of current drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of known mutations in the drug resistance genes Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr and Pfdhps in two different epidemiological settings in Cameroon. Dried blood spots collected in 2018 and 2019 from asymptomatic individuals were used for DNA extraction and then the Plasmodium infection status was determined byPCR.

Resistance to artemisinin in falciparum malaria parasites: A redox-mediated phenomenon

August 25, 2021 - 16:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Egwu CO, Pério P, Augereau JM, Tsamesidis I, Benoit-Vical F, Reybier K
Reference: 
Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Aug 17:S0891-5849(21)00476-7

Malaria remains a major public health disease due to its high yearly mortality and morbidity. Resistance to the gold standard drug, artemisinin, is worrisome and needs better understanding in order to be overcome. In this work, we sought to study whether redox processes are involved in artemisinin resistance. As artemisinin is known to act among others via production of reactive species, we first compared the production of reactive oxygen species and concomitant protein oxidation in artemisinin-sensitive and artemisinin-resistant parasites when treated with artemisinin.

NOT Open Access | Dual Inhibition of Parasitic Targets: a Valuable Strategy to Treat Malaria and Neglected Tropical Diseases

August 11, 2021 - 14:42 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Previti S, Di Chio C, Ettari R, Zappalà M
Reference: 
Curr Med Chem. 2021 Aug 10

Despite the countless efforts made in the last decades, malaria and neglected tropical diseases remain a high-impact health problem in developing countries. Malaria is one of the most severe parasitic diseases, with over 200 million cases and 400 000 deaths in 2019. Parasitic diseases caused by trypanosomatidae, namely Human African Trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis, register the highest rates of mortality amongst all the neglected tropical diseases.

Clinical and In Vitro Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to Artesunate-Amodiaquine in Cambodia

August 4, 2021 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mairet-Khedim M, Leang R, Witkowski B, et al.
Reference: 
Clin Infect Dis. 2021 Aug 2;73(3):406-413

Artesunate-amodiaquine is a potential therapy for uncomplicated malaria in Cambodia.

NOT Open Access | First report of N1575Y mutation in Anopheles gambiae in Sierra Leone

August 4, 2021 - 11:54 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Yin J, Yamba F, Zheng C, Smith SJ, Wang L, Li H, Xia Z, Zhou S, Xiao N
Reference: 
Infect Genet Evol. 2021 Aug;92:104852

The resistance of mosquito vectors to insecticides is one of the biological obstacles in the fight against malaria. Understanding of the status and mechanisms underlying the insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae species is necessary for success of vector control efforts. The study aimed to determine the molecular forms of An. gambiae from four districts in Sierra Leone during May and June 2018, and the level of N1575Y mutation.

Characterization of resistance profile (intensity and mechanisms) of Anopheles gambiae in three communes of northern Benin, West Africa

July 28, 2021 - 15:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Casimir Dossou Kpanou, Hermann W. Sagbohan, Martin Akogbéto, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:328, 27 July 2021

The selection and the spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors to the main classes of insecticides used in vector control tools are a major and ongoing challenge to malaria vector control programmes. This study aimed to determine the intensity of vector resistance to insecticides in three regions of Benin with different agro-ecological characteristics.

The newly discovered role of endocytosis in artemisinin resistance

July 28, 2021 - 14:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Behrens HM, Schmidt S, Spielmann T
Reference: 
Med Res Rev. 2021 Jul 26

Artemisinin and its derivatives (ART) are the cornerstone of malaria treatment as part of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). However, reduced susceptibility to artemisinin as well as its partner drugs threatens the usefulness of ACTs. Single point mutations in the parasite protein Kelch13 (K13) are necessary and sufficient for the reduced sensitivity of malaria parasites to ART but several alternative mechanisms for this resistance have been proposed.

The antimalarial MMV688533 provides potential for single-dose cures with a high barrier to Plasmodium falciparum parasite resistance

July 28, 2021 - 12:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Murithi JM, Pascal C, Leroy D, et al.
Reference: 
Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jul 21;13(603):eabg6013

The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to first-line antimalarials creates an imperative to identify and develop potent preclinical candidates with distinct modes of action. Here, we report the identification of MMV688533, an acylguanidine that was developed following a whole-cell screen with compounds known to hit high-value targets in human cells.

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