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ethiopia

Prevalence and associated factors of malaria in children under the age of five years in Wogera district, northwest Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study

October 16, 2021 - 13:00 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Tsegaye AT, Ayele A, Birhanu S
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Oct 11;16(10):e0257944

Malaria is a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and children are especially vulnerable. In 2019, an estimated 409,000 people died of malaria, most (274,000) were young children and 94% of the cases and deaths were in Africa. Prior studies in Ethiopia focused on the adult population and high transmission areas. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of malaria in children under five years in low transmission areas.

Spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in northern Ethiopia by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, laboratory antibody and antigen data

October 13, 2021 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Leonard CM, Assefa A, Sime H, Mohammed H, Kebede A, Solomon H, Drakeley C, Murphy M, Hwang J, Rogier E
Reference: 
J Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 10:jiab489

Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.

Detection of high frequency of MAD20 allelic variants of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 gene from Adama and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia

October 9, 2021 - 09:58 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Temesgen File, Tsegaye Chekol, Gezahegn Solomon, Hunduma Dinka and Lemu Golassa
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:385, 27 September 2021

One of the major challenges in developing an effective vaccine against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum is genetic polymorphism within parasite population. Understanding the genetic polymorphism like block 2 region of merozoite surface protein-1 (msp-1) gene of P. falciparum enlighten mechanisms underlining disease pathology, identification of the parasite clone profile from the isolates, transmission intensity and potential deficiencies of the ongoing malaria control and elimination efforts in the locality. Detailed understanding of local genetic polymorphism is an input to pave the way for better management, control and elimination of malaria. The aim of this study was to detect the most frequent allelic variant of the msp-1 gene of P. falciparum clinical isolates from selected health facilities in Adama town and its surroundings, Oromia, Ethiopia.

Performance of rapid diagnostic tests, microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and PCR for malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

October 9, 2021 - 09:56 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Daniel Getacher Feleke, Yonas Alemu and Nebiyou Yemanebirhane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:384, 27 September 2021

Rapid accurate diagnosis followed by effective treatment is very important for malaria control. Light microscopy remains the “golden standard” method for malaria diagnosis. Diagnostic test method must have sufficient level of accuracy for detecting malaria parasites. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), microscopy, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the malaria diagnosis in Ethiopia.

Plasmodium falciparum is evolving to escape malaria rapid diagnostic tests in Ethiopia

October 2, 2021 - 13:14 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feleke SM, Reichert EN, Parr JB, et al.
Reference: 
Nat Microbiol. 2021 Oct;6(10):1289-1299

In Africa, most rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for falciparum malaria recognize histidine-rich protein 2 antigen. Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking histidine-rich protein 2 (pfhrp2) and 3 (pfhrp3) genes escape detection by these RDTs, but it is not known whether these deletions confer sufficient selective advantage to drive rapid population expansion. By studying blood samples from a cohort of 12,572 participants enroled in a prospective, cross-sectional survey along Ethiopia's borders with Eritrea, Sudan and South Sudan using RDTs, PCR, an ultrasensitive bead-based immunoassay for antigen detection and next-generation sequencing, we estimate that histidine-rich protein 2-based RDTs would miss 9.7% (95% confidence interval 8.5-11.1) of P. falciparum malaria cases owing to pfhrp2 deletion.

A whole transcriptomic approach provides novel insights into the molecular basis of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Ethiopia

September 29, 2021 - 10:13 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Messenger LA, Impoinvil LM, Derilus D, Yewhalaw D, Irish S, Lenhart A.
Reference: 
Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2021 Sep 22:103655

The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is of increasing concern in Ethiopia because of its potential implications for vector control failure. To better elucidate the specificity of resistance mechanisms and to facilitate the design of control strategies that minimize the likelihood of selecting for cross-resistance, a whole transcriptomic approach was used to explore gene expression patterns in a multi-insecticide resistant population of Anopheles arabiensis from Oromia Region, Ethiopia.

Malaria prevalence and associated risk factors in Dembiya district, North-western Ethiopia

September 28, 2021 - 09:45 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mihretu Tarekegn, Habte Tekie, Sisay Dugassa and Yitbarek Wolde-Hawariat
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:372, 17 September 2021

Ethiopia embarked on combating malaria with an aim to eliminate malaria from low transmission districts by 2030. A continuous monitoring of malaria prevalence in areas under elimination settings is important to evaluate the status of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of the currently existing malaria intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malaria and associated risk factors in selected areas of Dembiya district.

Plasmodium vivax epidemiology in Ethiopia 2000-2020: A systematic review and meta-analysis

September 25, 2021 - 12:06 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ketema T, Bacha K, Getahun K, Portillo HAD, Bassat Q
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Sep 15;15(9):e0009781

Ethiopia is one of the scarce rare African countries where Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum co-exist. There has been no attempt to derive a robust prevalence estimate of P. vivax in the country although a clear understanding of the epidemiology of this parasite is essential for informed decisions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, is aimed to synthesize the available evidences on the distribution of P. vivax infection by different locations/regions, study years, eco-epidemiological zones, and study settings in Ethiopia.

Primary school students' poetic malaria messages from Jimma zone, Oromia, Ethiopia: a qualitative content analysis

September 23, 2021 - 10:33 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Kebede Y, Hayder A, Girma K, Abamecha F, Alemayehu G, Abebe L, Sudhakar M, Birhanu Z
Reference: 
BMC Public Health. 2021 Sep 16;21(1):1688

The engagement of schools in malaria control is an emerging strategy. Little is known about the involvement of students in the development of malaria messages. This study evaluated the message content of primary school students’ malaria poems.

Comparing insecticide-treated nets access-use based on universal household and population indicators vis-a-vis measures adapted to sleeping spaces in Ethiopia

September 1, 2021 - 16:37 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Yohannes Kebede, Morankar Sudhakar, Guda Alemayehu, Lakew Abebe and Zewdie Birhanu
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:355, 28 August 2021

Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) access-use has been pivotal monitoring indicator for malaria prevention and control, particularly in resource limited settings. The objective of the study was to compare ITN access-use based on universal household and population indicators and measures adapted to sleeping spaces.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia, March, 2019. 762 HHs were sampled for the survey. Multi-stage followed by simple random sampling used. Monitoring and evaluation reference group’s (MERG’s) indicators were used for measuring ITN access-use. MERG’s indicators are each adapted ITN access-use to sleeping spaces. Household (ownership, saturation and sufficiency) and population access and household members’ status of last night sleeping under ITN compared based on the two models. Differences of estimates of ITN access-use based on the two methods reported as magnitude of over/under estimations, at p-value < 0.05.

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