Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detecting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and HRP3 are widely used throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, multiple SSA countries have reported pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 (pfhrp2/3) gene deletions. Blood samples (n = 1109) collected from patients with P. falciparum infection from six health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from March 2017 to January 2018 were evaluated for pfhrp2/3 deletions. Samples were assayed for HRP2, pan-Plasmodium LDH (pLDH) and aldolase (pAldolase) antigens by bead-based multiplex antigen assay.
Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in two rural low (300 m above sea level) and highland (700 m asl) settings of Korogwe District north-eastern Tanzania.
Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea can reduce mortality in children under five years (CU5) in resource-poor countries. There is growing interest in expanding malaria community case management (mCCM) to older individuals, but limited empirical evidence exists to guide this expansion. As part of a two-year cluster-randomized trial of mCCM expansion to all ages in southeastern Madagascar, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess baseline malaria prevalence and healthcare-seeking behaviours.
Encouraged by the previous success in malaria control and prevention strategies, the Ethiopian ministry of health launched malaria elimination with a stepwise approach by primarily targeting the low-transmission Districts and their adjacent areas/zones in order to shrink the country’s malaria map progressively. Hence, this community survey was conducted to establish baseline malaria information at the preliminary phase of elimination at targeted settings.
Eritrea was the first African country to complete a nationwide switch in 2016 away from HRP2-based RDTs due to high rates of false-negative RDT results caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking hrp2/hrp3 genes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2019 enrolling symptomatic malaria patients from nine health facilities across three zones consecutively to investigate the epidemiology of P. falciparum lacking hrp2/3 after the RDT switch. Molecular analyses of 715 samples revealed the overall prevalence of hrp2-, hrp3-, and dual hrp2/3-deleted parasites as 9.4% (95%CI 7.4-11.7%), 41.7% (95% CI 38.1-45.3%) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.8-9.7%), respectively.
Despite the widespread use of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), purified native HRP2 antigen is not standardly used in research applications or assessment of RDTs used in the field.
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are commonly used for the diagnosis of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, false negative results of RDT caused by genetic variation of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes (pfhrp2/3) threaten existing malaria case management and control efforts. The main objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variations of the pfhrp2/3 genes.
Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.
The diagnosis of malaria, using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), requires the collection of capillary blood. This procedure is relatively simple to perform but invasive and poses potential risks to patients and health workers, arising from the manipulation of potentially infectious bodily fluids. Less or non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on urine, saliva or requiring no sampling, have the potential to generate less discomfort for the patient and to offer simpler and less risky testing procedures that could be safely performed by untrained staff or even self-performed. To explore the potential acceptance and perceived value of such non-invasive tests, an online, international survey was conducted to gather feedback from National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) representatives.
Zambia continues to advance on the path to elimination with significant reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. Crucial components that have contributed to progress thus far and are necessary for achieving the national malaria elimination goals include properly identifying and treating all malaria cases through accurate diagnosis. This study sought to compare and assess the diagnostic performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and Light Microscopy (LM) with photo-induced electron transfer polymerase chain reaction (PET-PCR) as the gold standard using 2018 Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) data across Zambia to better understand diagnostic accuracy metrics and how these vary across a transmission gradient.