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Plasmodium falciparum pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions among patients in the DRC enrolled from 2017 to 2018

December 1, 2021 - 20:27 -- Open Access
McCaffery JN, Nace D, Herman C, Singh B, Sompwe EM, Nkoli PM, Ngoyi DM, Kahunu GM, Halsey ES, Rogier E
Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 26;11(1):22979

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detecting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and HRP3 are widely used throughout sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to diagnose Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, multiple SSA countries have reported pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 (pfhrp2/3) gene deletions. Blood samples (n = 1109) collected from patients with P. falciparum infection from six health facilities throughout the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) from March 2017 to January 2018 were evaluated for pfhrp2/3 deletions. Samples were assayed for HRP2, pan-Plasmodium LDH (pLDH) and aldolase (pAldolase) antigens by bead-based multiplex antigen assay.

Prevalence of asymptomatic malaria, submicroscopic parasitaemia and anaemia in Korogwe District, north-eastern Tanzania

November 18, 2021 - 12:52 -- Open Access
Paul M. Hayuma, Christian W. Wang, Edwin Liheluka, Vito Baraka, Rashid A. Madebe, Daniel T. R. Minja, Gerald Misinzo, Michael Alifrangis and John P. A. Lusingu
Malaria Journal 2021 20:424, 29 October 2021

Asymptomatic malaria infections largely remain undetected and act as a reservoir for continuous transmission. The study assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic asymptomatic malaria infections and anaemia in two rural low (300 m above sea level) and highland (700 m asl) settings of Korogwe District north-eastern Tanzania.

Baseline malaria prevalence and care-seeking behaviours in rural Madagascar prior to a trial to expand malaria community case management to all ages

November 18, 2021 - 11:48 -- Open Access
Dean Sayre, Laura C. Steinhardt, Aina Harimanana, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:422, 26 October 2021

Integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea can reduce mortality in children under five years (CU5) in resource-poor countries. There is growing interest in expanding malaria community case management (mCCM) to older individuals, but limited empirical evidence exists to guide this expansion. As part of a two-year cluster-randomized trial of mCCM expansion to all ages in southeastern Madagascar, a cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess baseline malaria prevalence and healthcare-seeking behaviours.

Baseline malaria prevalence at the targeted pre-elimination districts in Ethiopia

November 4, 2021 - 12:58 -- Open Access
Nega D, Abera A, Abate E, et al.
BMC Public Health. 2021 Nov 3;21(1):1996

Encouraged by the previous success in malaria control and prevention strategies, the Ethiopian ministry of health launched malaria elimination with a stepwise approach by primarily targeting the low-transmission Districts and their adjacent areas/zones in order to shrink the country’s malaria map progressively. Hence, this community survey was conducted to establish baseline malaria information at the preliminary phase of elimination at targeted settings.

Epidemiology of mutant Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking histidine-rich protein 2/3 genes in Eritrea 2 years after switching from HRP2-based RDTs

November 3, 2021 - 20:31 -- Open Access
Mihreteab S, Anderson K, Pasay C, Smith D, Gatton ML, Cunningham J, Berhane A, Cheng Q
Sci Rep. 2021 Oct 26;11(1):21082

Eritrea was the first African country to complete a nationwide switch in 2016 away from HRP2-based RDTs due to high rates of false-negative RDT results caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites lacking hrp2/hrp3 genes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2019 enrolling symptomatic malaria patients from nine health facilities across three zones consecutively to investigate the epidemiology of P. falciparum lacking hrp2/3 after the RDT switch. Molecular analyses of 715 samples revealed the overall prevalence of hrp2-, hrp3-, and dual hrp2/3-deleted parasites as 9.4% (95%CI 7.4-11.7%), 41.7% (95% CI 38.1-45.3%) and 7.6% (95% CI 5.8-9.7%), respectively.

Purification of native histidine-rich protein 2 (nHRP2) from Plasmodium falciparum culture supernatant, infected RBCs, and parasite lysate

October 29, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Balwan Singh, Jessica N. McCaffery, Amy Kong, Yong Ah, Scott Wilson, Sayan Chatterjee, Deepak Tomar, Michael Aidoo, Venkatachalam Udhayakumar and Eric Rogier
Malaria Journal 2021 20:405, 17 October 2021

Despite the widespread use of histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2)-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), purified native HRP2 antigen is not standardly used in research applications or assessment of RDTs used in the field.

Genetic variation of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 in Assosa zone, Ethiopia: its impact on the performance of malaria rapid diagnostic tests

October 23, 2021 - 18:09 -- Open Access
Gezahegn Solomon Alemayehu, Alebachew Messele, Kayla Blackburn, Karen Lopez, Eugenia Lo, Daniel Janies and Lemu Golassa
Malaria Journal 2021 20:394, 9 October 2021

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are commonly used for the diagnosis of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. However, false negative results of RDT caused by genetic variation of P. falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes (pfhrp2/3) threaten existing malaria case management and control efforts. The main objective of this study was to investigate the genetic variations of the pfhrp2/3 genes.

Spatial distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in northern Ethiopia by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test, laboratory antibody and antigen data

October 13, 2021 - 12:34 -- Open Access
Leonard CM, Assefa A, Sime H, Mohammed H, Kebede A, Solomon H, Drakeley C, Murphy M, Hwang J, Rogier E
J Infect Dis. 2021 Oct 10:jiab489

Determining malaria transmission within regions of low, heterogenous prevalence is difficult. A variety of malaria tests exist and range from identification of diagnostic infection to testing for prior exposure. This study describes concordance of multiple malaria tests using data from a 2015 household survey conducted in Ethiopia.

Acceptance and perceived value of non-invasive malaria diagnostic tests in malaria-endemic countries

October 9, 2021 - 20:15 -- Open Access
Ewurama Dedea Ampadu Owusu, Ana Campillo, Jennifer Daily and Xavier C. Ding
Malaria Journal 2021 20:379,24 September 2021

The diagnosis of malaria, using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), requires the collection of capillary blood. This procedure is relatively simple to perform but invasive and poses potential risks to patients and health workers, arising from the manipulation of potentially infectious bodily fluids. Less or non-invasive diagnostic tests, based on urine, saliva or requiring no sampling, have the potential to generate less discomfort for the patient and to offer simpler and less risky testing procedures that could be safely performed by untrained staff or even self-performed. To explore the potential acceptance and perceived value of such non-invasive tests, an online, international survey was conducted to gather feedback from National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) representatives.

Performance evaluation of RDT, light microscopy, and PET-PCR for detecting Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in the 2018 Zambia National Malaria Indicator Survey

October 9, 2021 - 10:03 -- Open Access
Mulenga C. Mwenda, Abebe A. Fola, Ilinca I. Ciubotariu, Conceptor Mulube, Brenda Mambwe, Rachael Kasaro, Moonga B. Hawela, Busiku Hamainza, John M. Miller, Giovanna Carpi and Daniel J. Bridges
Malaria Journal 2021 20:386, 28 September 2021

Zambia continues to advance on the path to elimination with significant reductions in malaria morbidity and mortality. Crucial components that have contributed to progress thus far and are necessary for achieving the national malaria elimination goals include properly identifying and treating all malaria cases through accurate diagnosis. This study sought to compare and assess the diagnostic performance of Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDT) and Light Microscopy (LM) with photo-induced electron transfer polymerase chain reaction (PET-PCR) as the gold standard using 2018 Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) data across Zambia to better understand diagnostic accuracy metrics and how these vary across a transmission gradient.


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