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Malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe during the COVID-19 pandemic: analysis of routine surveillance data

May 26, 2021 - 09:29 -- Open Access
Samuel Gavi, Oscar Tapera, Joseph Mberikunashe and Mufaro Kanyangarara
Malaria Journal 2021 20:233, 24 May 2021

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a unique challenge to health care systems globally. To curb COVID-19 transmission, mitigation measures such as travel restrictions, border closures, curfews, lockdowns, and social distancing have been implemented. However, these measures may directly and indirectly affect the delivery and utilization of essential health services, including malaria services. The suspension of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated net (ITN) distribution, shortages of malaria commodities, and reduced demand for health services have hindered the continued delivery of malaria services. The overall goal of this analysis was to describe the trends in malaria incidence and mortality in Zimbabwe prior to and during the pandemic to understand the consequences of COVID-19-related changes in the delivery and utilization of malaria services.

The Immediate Effects of a Combined Mass Drug Administration and Indoor Residual Spraying Campaign to Accelerate Progress towards Malaria Elimination in Grande-Anse, Haiti

May 18, 2021 - 13:25 -- Open Access
Druetz T, Stresman G, Eisele TP, et al.
J Infect Dis. 2021 May 16:jiab259

Haiti is planning targeted interventions to accelerate progress towards malaria elimination. In the most affected Department (Grande-Anse), a combined mass drug administration (MDA) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaign was launched in October 2018. This study assessed the intervention effectiveness in reducing P. falciparum prevalence.

The impact of stopping and starting indoor residual spraying on malaria burden in Uganda

May 13, 2021 - 12:43 -- Open Access
Namuganga JF, Epstein A, Rodriguez-Barraquer I, et al.
Nat Commun. 2021 May 11;12(1):2635

The scale-up of malaria control efforts has led to marked reductions in malaria burden over the past twenty years, but progress has slowed. Implementation of indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticide, a proven vector control intervention, has been limited and difficult to sustain partly because questions remain on its added impact over widely accepted interventions such as bed nets.

Malaria in Venezuela: Gabaldon's legacy scattered to the winds

May 5, 2021 - 08:20 -- Open Access
Gabaldón-Figueira JC, Villegas L, Grillet ME, Lezaun J, Pocaterra L, Bevilacqua M, Paniz-Mondolfi A, González ON, Chaccour C
Lancet Glob Health. 2021 May;9(5):e584-e585

Between 1936 and 1970, Venezuela enacted one of the most important sanitary campaigns against malaria. It was led by Arnoldo Gabaldón, and its cornerstone was a national indoor residual spraying campaign with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane that lasted for almost four decades. By 1961, malaria had been wiped out from 68% of the Venezuelan territory, and the mortality rate had been reduced from 164 deaths per 100 000 people in 1936 to zero in 1962.

Perceptions and prevention practices on malaria among the indigenous Orang Asli community in Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia

April 28, 2021 - 15:54 -- Open Access
Mohd Bakhtiar Munajat, Mohd Amirul Fitri A. Rahim, Zulkarnain Md Idris, et al.
Malaria Journal 2021 20:202, 27 April 2021

Malaysia is on track towards malaria elimination. However, several cases of malaria still occur in the country. Contributing factors and communal aspects have noteworthy effects on any malaria elimination activities. Thus, assessing the community’s knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) towards malaria is essential. This study was performed to evaluate KAP regarding malaria among the indigenous people (i.e. Orang Asli) in Peninsular Malaysia.

Efficacy of broflanilide (VECTRON T500), a new meta-diamide insecticide, for indoor residual spraying against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors

April 13, 2021 - 13:31 -- Open Access
Ngufor C, Govoetchan R, Fongnikin A, Vigninou E, Syme T, Akogbeto M, Rowland M
Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7976

The rotational use of insecticides with different modes of action for indoor residual spraying (IRS) is recommended for improving malaria vector control and managing insecticide resistance. Insecticides with new chemistries are urgently needed. Broflanilide is a newly discovered insecticide under consideration. We investigated the efficacy of a wettable powder (WP) formulation of broflanilide (VECTRON T500) for IRS on mud and cement wall substrates in laboratory and experimental hut studies against pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors in Benin, in comparison with pirimiphos-methyl CS (Actellic 300CS).

Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness of indoor residual spray with pirimiphos‐methyl (Actellic) on malaria transmission in Zambia

April 7, 2021 - 12:46 -- Open Access
Joseph Keating, Joshua O. Yukich, John M. Miller, Sara Scates, Busiku Hamainza, Thomas P. Eisele and Adam Bennett
Malaria Journal 2021 20:173, 1 April 2021

Widespread insecticide resistance to pyrethroids could thwart progress towards elimination. Recently, the World Health Organization has encouraged the use of non-pyrethroid insecticides to reduce the spread of insecticide resistance. An electronic tool for implementing and tracking coverage of IRS campaigns has recently been tested (mSpray), using satellite imagery to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the enumeration process. The purpose of this paper is to retrospectively analyse cross-sectional observational data to provide evidence of the epidemiological effectiveness of having introduced Actellic 300CS and the mSpray platform into IRS programmes across Zambia.

Malaria in Eswatini, 2012–2019: a case study of the elimination effort

March 24, 2021 - 14:34 -- Open Access
Theresia Estomih Nkya, Ulrike Fillinger, Makhoselive Dlamini, Onyango P. Sangoro, Rose Marubu, Zulisile Zulu, Emmanuel Chanda, Clifford Maina Mutero and Quinton Dlamini
Malaria Journal 2021 20:159, 20 March 2021

Eswatini was the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to pass a National Malaria Elimination Policy in 2011, and later set a target for elimination by the year 2020. This case study aimed to review the malaria surveillance data of Eswatini collected over 8 years between 2012 and 2019 to evaluate the country’s efforts that targeted malaria elimination by 2020. Coverage of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for vector control and data on malaria cases were provided by the National Malaria Programme (NMP) of Eswatini. The data included all cases treated for malaria in all health facilities.

Development and Testing of Long-Lasting IRS Products While Revising the WHO Test Protocol

March 23, 2021 - 15:14 -- Open Access
Ole Skovmand, Gisele Ongmayeb, Roch Kounbobr Dabiré, Moussa Namountougou, Benson Georges Meda, Trung Trang, Duoc Dang, Tuan Nguyen
JPHI, Vol-3 Issue 4 Pg. no.– 2

The paper describes the development of a long-lasting product for Intra-domicile residual spray (IRS) and shows it is possible to obtain a residual effect of nearly 2 years. However, to obtain that the methods currently recommended by WHO for laboratory evaluation had to be modified and approached methods closer to the semifield and field evaluations as applied in later phases of WHO procedures.

Cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying with pirimiphos-methyl in a high malaria transmission district of Mozambique with high access to standard insecticide-treated nets

March 13, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Alonso S, Chaccour CJ, Wagman J, Candrinho B, Muthoni R, Saifodine A, Saute F, Robertson M, Zulliger R
Malar J. 2021 Mar 10;20(1):143

As malaria cases increase in some of the highest burden countries, more strategic deployment of new and proven interventions must be evaluated to meet global malaria reduction goals.


The cost and cost-effectiveness of indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic®300 CS) were assessed in a high transmission district (Mopeia) with high access to pyrethroid insecticide-treated nets (ITNs), compared to ITNs alone. The major mosquito vectors in the area were susceptible to primiphos-methyl, but resistant to pyrethoids. A decision analysis approach was followed to conduct deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in a theoretical cohort of 10,000 children under five years of age (U5) and 10,000 individuals of all ages, separately. Model parameters and distributions were based on prospectively collected cost and epidemiological data from a cluster-randomized control trial and a literature review. The primary analysis used health facility-malaria incidence, while community cohort incidence and cross-sectional prevalence rates were used in sensitivity analyses. Lifetime costs, malaria cases, deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were calculated to determine the incremental costs per DALY averted through IRS.


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