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IRS

Geographically extensive larval surveys reveal an unexpected scarcity of primary vector mosquitoes in a region of persistent malaria transmission in western Zambia

February 2, 2021 - 16:35 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Cross DE, Thomas C, McKeown N, Siaziyu V, Healey A, Willis T, Singini D, Liywalii F, Silumesii A, Sakala J, Smith M, Macklin M, Hardy AJ, Shaw PW
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Feb 1;14(1):91

The Barotse floodplains of the upper Zambezi River and its tributaries are a highly dynamic environment, with seasonal flooding and transhumance presenting a shifting mosaic of potential larval habitat and human and livestock blood meals for malaria vector mosquitoes. However, limited entomological surveillance has been undertaken to characterize the vector community in these floodplains and their environs. Such information is necessary as, despite substantial deployment of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) against Anopheles vectors, malaria transmission persists across Barotseland in Zambia’s Western Province.

Which indoor residual spraying insecticide best complements standard pyrethroid long-lasting insecticidal nets for improved control of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors

February 2, 2021 - 16:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Syme T, Fongnikin A, Todjinou D, Govoetchan R, Gbegbo M, Rowland M, Akogbeto M, Ngufor C
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jan 28;16(1):e0245804

Where resources are available, non-pyrethroid IRS can be deployed to complement standard pyrethroid LLINs with the aim of achieving improved vector control and managing insecticide resistance. The impact of the combination may however depend on the type of IRS insecticide deployed. Studies comparing combinations of pyrethroid LLINs with different types of non-pyrethroid IRS products will be necessary for decision making.

Reduced exposure to malaria vectors following indoor residual spraying of pirimiphos-methyl in a high-burden district of rural Mozambique with high ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets: entomological surveillance results from a cluster-randomized t

January 27, 2021 - 11:34 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joseph M. Wagman, Kenyssony Varela, Molly Robertson, et al.
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:54, 21 January 2021

The need to develop new products and novel approaches for malaria vector control is recognized as a global health priority. One approach to meeting this need has been the development of new products for indoor residual spraying (IRS) with novel active ingredients for public health. While initial results showing the impact of several of these next-generation IRS products have been encouraging, questions remain about how to best deploy them for maximum impact. To help address these questions, a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial to measure the impact of IRS with a microencapsulated formulation of pirimiphos-methyl (PM) in an area with high ownership of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) was conducted in a high-transmission district of central Mozambique with pyrethroid resistant vectors. Presented here are the results of the vector surveillance component of the trial.

NOT Open Access | Patterns of human exposure to early-evening and outdoor biting mosquitoes and residual malaria transmission in Ethiopia

January 27, 2021 - 10:53 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Degefa T, Githeko AK, Lee MC, Yan G, Yewhalaw D
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 21:105837

Ethiopia has shown a notable progress in reducing malaria burden over the past decade, mainly due to the scaleup of vector control interventions such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Based on the progress, the country has set goals to eliminate malaria by 2030. However, residual malaria transmission due to early-evening and outdoor biting vectors could pose a challenge to malaria elimination efforts. This study assessed vector behavior, patterns of human exposure to vector bites and residual malaria transmission in southwestern Ethiopia. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected monthly from January to December 2018 using human landing catches (HLCs), human-baited double net traps, CDC light traps and pyrethrum spray catches.

Insecticide resistance status of malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) of southwest Burkina Faso and residual efficacy of indoor residual spraying with microencapsulated pirimiphos-methyl insecticide

January 20, 2021 - 06:07 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Soma DD, Zogo B, Dabiré RK, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jan 18;14(1):58

The rapid spread of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors and the rebound in malaria cases observed recently in some endemic areas underscore the urgent need to evaluate and deploy new effective control interventions. A randomized control trial (RCT) was conducted with the aim to investigate the benefit of deploying complementary strategies, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) with pirimiphos-methyl in addition to long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) in Diébougou, southwest Burkina Faso.

NOT Open Access | Community Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on Malaria Vector Control Strategies in Lagos State, South-West Nigeria

January 12, 2021 - 15:16 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Omotayo AI, Ande AT, Oduola AO, Olakiigbe AK, Ghazali AK, Adeneye A, Awolola ST
Reference: 
J Med Entomol. 2021 Jan 9:tjaa278

Malaria is a leading public health challenge causing mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Prominent malaria vector control methods employed in sub-Saharan Africa include Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) and Indoor Residual spraying (IRS). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of malaria vector control methods in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were employed for the cross-sectional survey which was carried out between May and August 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select Lagos Mainland, Kosofe, and Ojo local government areas (LGAs).

A cost analysis to address issues of budget constraints on the implementation of the indoor residual spray programme in two districts of Maputo Province, Mozambique

January 7, 2021 - 11:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neide Canana
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:8, 6 January 2021

It is frequently said that funding is essential to ensure optimal results from a malaria intervention control. However, in recent years, the capacity of the government of Mozambique to sustain the operational cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is facing numerous challenges due to restrictions of the Official Development Assistance. The purpose of the study was to estimate the cost of IRS operationalization in two districts of Maputo Province (Matutuíne and Namaacha) in Mozambique. The evidence produced in this study intends to provide decision-makers with insight into where they need to pay close attention in future planning in order to operationalize IRS with the existent budget in the actual context of budget restrictions.

NOT Open Access | Performance of pirimiphos-methyl based Indoor Residual Spraying on entomological parameters of malaria transmission in the pyrethroid resistance region of Koulikoro, Mali

January 6, 2021 - 12:41 -- NOT Open Access
Author(s): 
Keïta M, Sogoba N, Traoré B, Kané F, Coulibaly B, Traoré SF, Doumbia S
Reference: 
Acta Trop. 2021 Jan 2:105820

Malaria vector control in Mali relies heavily on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) in selected districts. As part of strengthening vector control strategies in Koulikoro district, the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) through the support from the US President's Malaria Initiative (PMI) has strategically driven the implementation of IRS, with the LLINs coverage also rising from 93.3% and 98.2%. Due to the increased reports of vector resistance to both pyrethroid and carbamates, there was a campaign for the use of pirimiphos-methyl, an organophosphate at Koulikoro between 2015 and 2016.

Malaria and COVID-19: unmasking their ties

December 23, 2020 - 09:55 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Mogahed Ismail Hassan Hussein, Ahmed Abdalazim Dafallah Albashir, Omer Ali Mohamed Ahmed Elawad and Anmar Homeida
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:457, 23 December 2020

The incidence and mortality of COVID-19, according to the World Health Organization reports, shows a noticeable difference between North America, Western Europe, and South Asia on one hand and most African countries on the other hand, especially the malaria-endemic countries. Although this observation could be attributed to limited testing capacity, mitigation tools adopted and cultural habits, many theories have been postulated to explain this difference in prevalence and mortality. Because death tends to occur more in elders, both the role of demography, and how the age structure of a population may contribute to the difference in mortality rate between countries were discussed.

The Impact of Three Years of Targeted Indoor Residual Spraying with Pirimiphos-Methyl on Household Vector Abundance in a High Malaria Transmission Area of Northern Zambia

December 23, 2020 - 08:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hast MA, Stevenson JC, Muleba M, Chaponda M, Kabuya JB, Mulenga M, Shields T, Moss WJ, Norris DE
Reference: 
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Dec 21

The global malaria burden has decreased substantially, but gains have been uneven both within and between countries. In Zambia, the malaria burden remains high in northern and eastern regions of the country. To effectively reduce malaria transmission in these areas, evidence-based intervention strategies are needed. Zambia's National Malaria Control Centre conducted targeted indoor residual spraying (IRS) in 40 high-burden districts from 2014 to 2016 using the novel organophosphate insecticide pirimiphos-methyl.

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