Anopheles gambiae melanization-based refractoriness to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has rarely been observed in either laboratory or natural conditions, in contrast to the rodent model malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei that can become completely melanized by a TEP1 complement-like system-dependent mechanism.
Existing mechanisms of insecticide resistance are known to help the survival of mosquitoes following contact with chemical compounds, even though they could negatively affect the life-history traits of resistant malaria vectors. In West Africa, the knockdown resistance mechanism kdrR (L1014F) is the most common. However, little knowledge is available on its effects on mosquito life-history traits. The fitness effects associated with this knockdown resistance allele in Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) were investigated in an insecticide-free laboratory environment.
Molecular diagnostic tools have been incorporated in insecticide resistance monitoring programmes to identify underlying genetic basis of resistance and develop early warning systems of vector control failure. Identifying genetic markers of insecticide resistance is crucial in enhancing the ability to mitigate potential effects of resistance. The knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, the acetylcholinesterase-1 (ace-1R) mutation associated with resistance to organophosphates and carbamates and 2La chromosomal inversion associated with indoor resting behaviour, were investigated in the present study.
Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) are a core malaria intervention. LLINs should retain efficacy against mosquito vectors for a minimum of three years. Efficacy and durability of Olyset® Plus, a permethrin and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) treated LLIN, was evaluated versus permethrin treated Olyset® Net. In the absence of WHO guidelines of how to evaluate PBO nets, and considering the manufacturer’s product claim, Olyset® Plus was evaluated as a pyrethroid LLIN.
The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is a major African malaria vector, transmitting parasites responsible for significant mortality and disease burden. Although flight acoustics are essential to mosquito mating and present promising alternatives to insecticide-based vector control strategies, there is limited data on mosquito flight tones during swarming. Here, for the first time, we present detailed analyses of free-flying male and female An. gambiae flight tones and their harmonization (harmonic convergence) over a complete swarm sequence.
Anopheline mosquitoes are the sole vectors for the Plasmodium pathogens responsible for malaria, which is among the oldest and most devastating of human diseases. The continuing global impact of malaria reflects the evolutionary success of a complex vector-pathogen relationship that accordingly has been the long-term focus of both debate and study.
Until recently, relatively little research has been done on how mosquitoes behave around the occupied bed net in the indoor environment. This has been partly remedied in the last few years through laboratory and field studies, most of these using video methods and mosquito flight tracking. Despite these recent advances, understanding of the mosquito-bed net environment system, and the principles that underlie mosquito behaviour within it, is limited. This project aimed to further understand this system by studying the effects of gently moving air (such as might be introduced through room design to make the indoor environment more comfortable and conducive to ITN use) and warmer vs. cooler ambient conditions on mosquito activity around ITNs and other bed nets.
Pyrethroid resistance poses a major threat to the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in Burkina Faso and throughout sub-Saharan Africa, particularly where resistance is present at high intensity. For such areas, there are alternative ITNs available, including the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO)-based ITNs and dual active ingredient ITNs such as Interceptor G2 (treated with chlorfenapyr and alpha-cypermethrin). Before deploying alternative ITNs on a large scale it is crucial to characterize the resistance profiles of primary malaria vector species for evidence-based decision making.
Effective management of insect disease vectors requires a detailed understanding of their ecology and behavior. In Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (Diptera: Culicidae) mating occurs during swarming, but knowledge of their mating behavior under natural conditions is limited. Mosquitoes mate in flight over specific landmarks, known as swarm markers, at particular locations. Swarms consist of males; the females usually approach the swarm and depart following copulation. The number of mating pairs per swarm is closely associated with swarm size.
Pyrethroid resistance is a major concern for malaria vector control programs that predominantly rely on insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs). Contradictory results of the impact of resistance have been observed during field studies. We combined continent-wide estimates of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae from 2006 to 2017, with continent-wide survey data to assess the effect of increasing pyrethroid resistance on the effectiveness of ITNs to prevent malaria infections in sub-Saharan Africa.