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insecticide

President's Malaria Initiative (PMI): Country insecticide susceptibility summaries

July 17, 2015 - 08:25 -- Bart G.J. Knols
This contribution was provided by Dr. Christen Fornadel, Senior Malaria Vector Control Specialist at PMI.
 
The President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) has made increasing investments in entomological monitoring across all 19 program countries in order to monitor the effects of two of PMI’s four main interventions, distribution of long-lasting, insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), both of which are aimed at controlling mosquito populations. Both of these interventions are insecticide based, so as they are scaled up, one can expect to see changes in the species composition of the vector population and possibly changes in malaria mosquito behavior. But most importantly, we have already seen and are likely to continue to see changes in mosquito susceptibility to the insecticides used on LLINs and for IRS. As malaria vector control has escalated across Africa, so have the number of reports of pyrethroid resistance in both major vector groups, Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An funestus s.l., and today it is rare to find sites in Africa where one or both these vectors do not show some level of pyrethroid resistance. The global community spends hundreds of millions of dollars on malaria control, so it is important to make sure that we are doing entomological monitoring to see that our investments are making an impact, and that those resources are not wasted.

A systematic review assessing the potential for release of vector species from competition following insecticide-based population suppression of Anopheles species in Africa

September 14, 2021 - 09:17 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Qureshi A, Connolly JB
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 8;14(1):462

While insecticide-based vector control can effectively target vector species in areas of high malaria endemicity, such as Anopheles gambiae in Africa, residual disease transmission can occur. Understanding the potential role of competitive displacement between vector species could inform both current insecticide-based vector control programmes and the development of future complementary interventions.

Management of insecticides for use in disease vector control: a global survey

June 8, 2021 - 10:53 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henk van den Berg, Haroldo Sergio da Silva Bezerra, Emmanuel Chanda, Samira Al-Eryani, Bhupender N. Nagpal, Elkhan Gasimov, Raman Velayudhan & Rajpal S. Yadav
Reference: 
BMC Infectious Diseases volume 21,468 (2021)

Vector control plays a critical role in the prevention, control and elimination of vector-borne diseases, and interventions of vector control continue to depend largely on the action of chemical insecticides. A global survey was conducted on the management practices of vector control insecticides at country level to identify gaps to inform future strategies on pesticide management, seeking to improve efficacy of interventions and reduce the side-effects of chemicals used on health and the environment.

Management of insecticides for use in disease vector control: Lessons from six countries in Asia and the Middle East

May 19, 2021 - 14:02 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Henk van den Berg, Raman Velayudhan, Rajpal S. Yadav
Reference: 
PLoSNegl Trop Dis15(4):e0009358

Interventions to control the vectors of human diseases, notably malaria, leishmaniasis and dengue, have relied mainly on the action of chemical insecticides. However, concerns have been raised regarding the management of insecticides in vector-borne disease-endemic countries. Our study aimed to analyze how vector control insecticides are managed in selected countries to extract lessons learned.

Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of reactive, targeted indoor residual spraying for malaria control in low-transmission settings: a cluster-randomised, non-inferiority trial in South Africa

March 2, 2021 - 15:05 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Bath D, Cook J, Kleinschmidt I, et al.
Reference: 
Lancet. 2021 Feb 27;397(10276):816-827

Increasing insecticide costs and constrained malaria budgets could make universal vector control strategies, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS), unsustainable in low-transmission settings. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a reactive, targeted IRS strategy.

Insecticide susceptibility of the sand fly leishmaniasis vector Phlebotomus argentipes in Sri Lanka

May 19, 2020 - 14:10 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Pathirage DRK, Karunaratne SHPP, Senanayake SC, Karunaweera ND
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2020 May 13;13(1):246

Leishmania donovani-induced and sand fly-transmitted leishmaniasis is a growing health problem in Sri Lanka. Limited knowledge on biological and behavioral characteristics of probable vector Phlebotomus argentipes hinders disease control. Here, insecticide susceptibility patterns of P. argentipes were investigated with exploration of probable underlying resistance mechanisms.

Improving the performance of spray operators through monitoring and evaluation of insecticide concentrations of pirimiphos-methyl during indoor residual spraying for malaria control on Bioko Island

January 24, 2020 - 14:52 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Godwin Fuseini, Hanafy M. Ismail, Michael E. von Fricken, Thomas A. Weppelmann, Jordan Smith, Rhiannon Agnes Ellis Logan, Folasade Oladepo, Kyle J. Walker, Wonder P. Phiri, Mark J. I. Paine and Guillermo A. García
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2020 19:35, 21 January 2020

Quality control of indoor residual spraying (IRS) is necessary to ensure that spray operators (SOs) deposit the correct concentration of insecticide on sprayed structures, while also confirming that spray records are not being falsified.

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