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plasmodium relictum

NOT Open Access | A highly invasive malaria parasite has expanded its range to non-migratory birds in North America

September 8, 2021 - 17:19 -- NOT Open Access
Theodosopoulos AN, Grabenstein KC, Bensch S, Taylor SA
Biol Lett. 2021 Sep;17(9):20210271

Parasite range expansions are a direct consequence of globalization and are an increasing threat to biodiversity. Here, we report a recent range expansion of the SGS1 strain of a highly invasive parasite, Plasmodium relictum, to two non-migratory passerines in North America. Plasmodium relictum is considered one of the world's most invasive parasites and causes the disease avian malaria: this is the first reported case of SGS1 in wild non-migratory birds on the continent.

Low MSP-1 haplotype diversity in the West Palearctic population of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum

June 16, 2021 - 13:06 -- Open Access
Olof Hellgren, Victor Kelbskopf, Vincenzo A. Ellis, Arif Ciloglu, Mélanie Duc, Xi Huang, Ricardo J. Lopes, Vanessa A. Mata, Sargis A. Aghayan, Abdullah Inci and Sergei V. Drovetski
Malaria Journal 2021 20:265, 12 June 2021

Although avian Plasmodium species are widespread and common across the globe, limited data exist on how genetically variable their populations are. Here, the hypothesis that the avian blood parasite Plasmodium relictum exhibits very low genetic diversity in its Western Palearctic transmission area (from Morocco to Sweden in the north and Transcaucasia in the east) was tested.

Shifts in Gene Expression Variability in the blood-stage of Plasmodium relictum

May 26, 2021 - 14:43 -- Open Access
Kalbskopf V, Ahrén D, Valkiūnas G, Palinauskas V, Hellgren O
Gene. 2021 May 18:145723

Avian malaria is a common and widespread disease of birds caused by a diverse group of pathogens of the genera Plasmodium. We investigated the transcriptomal profiles of one of the most common species, Plasmodium relictum, lineage SGS1, at multiple timepoints during the blood stages of the infection under experimental settings.

Gene regulation of the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum, during the different stages within the mosquito vector

May 25, 2021 - 14:47 -- Open Access
Sekar V, Rivero A, Pigeault R, Gandon S, Drews A, Ahren D, Hellgren O
Genomics. 2021 May 20:S0888-7543(21)00194-4

The malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum is one of the most widespread species of avian malaria. As is the case in its human counterparts, bird Plasmodium undergoes a complex life cycle infecting two hosts: the arthropod vector and the vertebrate host. In this study, we examined transcriptomes of P. relictum (SGS1) during crucial timepoints within its vector, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus.

NOT Open Access | Co-infections of Plasmodium relictum lineages pSGS1 and pGRW04 are readily distinguishable by broadly used PCR-based protocols, with remarks on global distribution of these malaria parasites

February 16, 2021 - 15:40 -- NOT Open Access
Chagas CRF, Harl J, Valkiūnas G
Acta Trop. 2021 Feb 12:105860

Plasmodium relictum is the most common generalist avian malaria parasite, which was reported in over 300 bird species of different orders, particularly often in passerines. This malaria infection is often severe in non-accustomed avian hosts. Currently, five distinct cytochrome b gene lineages have been assigned to P. relictum, with the lineages pSGS1 and pGRW04 being the most common.

NOT Open Access | Dynamics of blood stage and sporozoite-induced malarial infections in experimentally infected passerines

September 8, 2020 - 11:44 -- NOT Open Access
Palinauskas V, Platonova E, Žiegytė R, Mukhin A
Int J Parasitol. 2020 Aug 31:S0020-7519(20)30248-4

Complex experimental studies of vertebrate host, vector, and parasite interactions are essential in understanding virulence, but are difficult or impossible to conduct if vector species are unknown. Subinoculation of erythrocytic meronts of avian malarial parasites into susceptible hosts can avoid this problem, but this approach omits early exoerythrocytic stages, e.g. cryptozoites and metacryptozoites, that normally develop from sporozoites.

Host Transcriptional Responses to High- and Low-Virulent Avian Malaria Parasites

June 1, 2020 - 16:28 -- Open Access
Videvall E, Palinauskas V, Valkiūnas G, Hellgren O
Am Nat. 2020 Jun; 195(6):1070-1084

The transcriptional response of hosts to genetically similar pathogens can vary substantially, with important implications for disease severity and host fitness. A low pathogen load can theoretically elicit both high and low host responses, as the outcome depends on both the effectiveness of the host at suppressing the pathogen and the ability of the pathogen to evade the immune system. Here, we investigate the transcriptional response of Eurasian siskins (Spinus spinus) to two closely related lineages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium relictum.

Characterization of Plasmodium relictum, a cosmopolitan agent of avian malaria

May 8, 2018 - 14:58 -- Open Access
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Karin Fragner, Herbert Weissenböck, Carter T. Atkinson and Tatjana A. Iezhova
Malaria Journal 2018 17:184, 2 May 2018

Within the huge spectrum of vertebrate hosts, mosquito vectors, and ecological conditions, different lineages of P. relictum exhibit indistinguishable, markedly variable morphological forms.

NOT Open Access | Laser capture microdissection microscopy and genome sequencing of the avian malaria parasite, Plasmodium relictum

December 22, 2016 - 12:28 -- NOT Open Access
Holly L. Lutz, Nicholas J. Marra, Felix Grewe, Jenny S. Carlson, Vaidas Palinauskas, Gediminas Valkiūnas & Michael J. Stanhope
Parasitology Research, December 2016, Volume 115, Issue 12, pp 4503–4510

Acquiring genomic material from avian malaria parasites for genome sequencing has proven problematic due to the nucleation of avian erythrocytes, which produces a large ratio of host to parasite DNA (∼1 million to 1 bp).

NOT Open Access | Complete sporogony of Plasmodium relictum (lineage pGRW4) in mosquitoes Culex pipiens pipiens, with implications on avian malaria epidemiology

August 5, 2015 - 07:43 -- NOT Open Access
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Rita Žiegytė, Vaidas Palinauskas, Rasa Bernotienė, Dovilė Bukauskaitė, Mikas Ilgūnas, Dimitar Dimitrov & Tatjana A. Iezhova
Parasitology Research, August 2015, Volume 114, Issue 8, pp 3075-3085

Plasmodium relictum (lineage pGRW4) causes malaria in birds and is actively transmitted in countries with warm climates and also temperate regions of the New World.

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