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insecticide resistance

Threats to the effectiveness of insecticide-treated bednets for malaria control: thinking beyond insecticide resistance

July 14, 2021 - 10:08 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Steve W Lindsay, Matthew B Thomas, Immo Kleinschmidt
Reference: 
Lancet Glob Health 2021, June 30, 2021

From 2004 to 2019, insecticide-treated bednets (ITNs) have been the most effective tool for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, however, the decline in malaria cases and deaths has stalled. Some suggest that this inertia is due to increasing resistance in malaria vectors to the pyrethroid insecticides used for treating ITNs.

Insecticide resistance status of Anopheles arabiensis in irrigated and non-irrigated areas in western Kenya

June 29, 2021 - 14:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Orondo PW, Nyanjom SG, Yan G, et al.
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 26;14(1):335

Malaria control in Kenya is based on case management and vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). However, the development of insecticide resistance compromises the effectiveness of insecticide-based vector control programs. The use of pesticides for agricultural purposes has been implicated as one of the sources driving the selection of resistance. The current study was undertaken to assess the status and mechanism of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in irrigated and non-irrigated areas with varying agrochemical use in western Kenya.

Influence of insecticide resistance on the biting and resting preferences of malaria vectors in the Gambia

June 29, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Hamid-Adiamoh M, Nwakanma D, Assogba BS, Ndiath MO, D'Alessandro U, Afrane YA, Amambua-Ngwa A
Reference: 
PLoS One. 2021 Jun 24;16(6):e0241023

The scale-up of indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticidal nets, together with other interventions have considerably reduced the malaria burden in The Gambia. This study examined the biting and resting preferences of the local insecticide-resistant vector populations few years following scale-up of anti-vector interventions.

Insecticide resistance exerts significant fitness costs in immature stages of Anopheles gambiae in western Kenya

June 16, 2021 - 12:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Joyce K. Osoro, Maxwell G. Machani, Eric Ochomo, Christine Wanjala, Elizabeth Omukunda, Stephen Munga, Andrew K. Githeko, Guiyun Yan and Yaw A. Afrane
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:259, 9 June 2021

Despite increasing documentation of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors against public health insecticides in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of information on the potential fitness costs of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors, which is important in improving the current resistant management strategies. This study aimed to assess the fitness cost effects of insecticide resistance on the development and survival of immature Anopheles gambiae from western Kenya.

Automated phenotyping of mosquito larvae enables high-throughput screening for novel larvicides and offers potential for smartphone-based detection of larval insecticide resistance

June 8, 2021 - 11:44 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Buckingham SD, Partridge FA, Poulton BC, Miller BS, McKendry RA, Lycett GJ, Sattelle DB
Reference: 
PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2021 Jun 3;15(6):e0008639

Pyrethroid-impregnated nets have contributed significantly to halving the burden of malaria but resistance threatens their future efficacy and the pipeline of new insecticides is short. Here we report that an invertebrate automated phenotyping platform (INVAPP), combined with the algorithm Paragon, provides a robust system for measuring larval motility in Anopheles gambiae (and An. coluzzi) as well as Aedes aegypti with the capacity for high-throughput screening for new larvicides.

Genetic variation at the Cyp6m2 putative insecticide resistance locus in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

May 26, 2021 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Martin G. Wagah, Petra Korlević, Christopher Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Mara K. N. Lawniczak and Alex Makunin
Reference: 
Malaria Journal 2021 20:234, 25 May 2021

The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.

Optimized CRISPR tools and site-directed transgenesis towards gene drive development in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

May 25, 2021 - 14:19 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Feng X, López Del Amo V, Mameli E, Lee M, Bishop AL, Perrimon N, Gantz VM
Reference: 
Nat Commun. 2021 May 20;12(1):2960

Culex mosquitoes are a global vector for multiple human and animal diseases, including West Nile virus, lymphatic filariasis, and avian malaria, posing a constant threat to public health, livestock, companion animals, and endangered birds. While rising insecticide resistance has threatened the control of Culex mosquitoes, advances in CRISPR genome-editing tools have fostered the development of alternative genetic strategies such as gene drive systems to fight disease vectors.

Transcriptomic analysis reveals pronounced changes in gene expression due to sub-lethal pyrethroid exposure and ageing in insecticide resistance Anopheles coluzzii

May 12, 2021 - 09:15 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Ingham VA, Brown F, Ranson H
Reference: 
BMC Genomics. 2021 May 10;22(1):337

Malaria control is heavily reliant on the use of insecticides that target and kill the adult female Anopheline vector. The intensive use of insecticides of the pyrethroid class has led to widespread resistance in mosquito populations. The intensity of pyrethroid resistance in some settings in Africa means mosquitoes can contact bednets treated with this insecticide class multiple times with minimal mortality effects. Furthermore, both ageing and diel cycle have been shown to have large impacts on the resistance phenotype. Together, these traits may affect other aspects of vector biology controlling the vectorial capacity or fitness of the mosquito.

Insecticide resistance status in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) in coastal Kenya

April 22, 2021 - 08:26 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Munywoki DN, Kokwaro ED, Mwangangi JM, Muturi EJ, Mbogo CM
Reference: 
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Apr 20;14(1):207

The rapid and widespread evolution of insecticide resistance has emerged as one of the major challenges facing malaria control programs in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding the insecticide resistance status of mosquito populations and the underlying mechanisms of insecticide resistance can inform the development of effective and site-specific strategies for resistance prevention and management. The aim of this study was to investigate the insecticide resistance status of Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) mosquitoes from coastal Kenya.

Advances and opportunities in malaria population genomics

April 14, 2021 - 08:23 -- Open Access
Author(s): 
Neafsey DE, Taylor AR, MacInnis BL
Reference: 
Nat Rev Genet. 2021 Apr 8:1-16

Almost 20 years have passed since the first reference genome assemblies were published for Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite, and Anopheles gambiae, the most important mosquito vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Reference genomes now exist for all human malaria parasites and nearly half of the ~40 important vectors around the world.

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