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Entomological survey in two communes with residual malaria transmission in Gia Lai Province in the central highlands of Vietnam

October 29, 2021 - 14:11 -- Open Access
Thai Quang Nguyen, Manh Duc Nguyen, Vinh Xuan Pham, Huan Mah Ro, Michael D. Edstein, Weng K. Chow, Nicholas J. Martin, Jeffrey C. Hertz and Maysa T. Motoki
Malaria Journal 2021 20:403, 16 October 2021

In 2018, the National Malaria Control Programme in Vietnam switched from prioritizing malaria control to elimination. However, with the ongoing elimination programme, there are still areas where residual malaria transmission persists, including the central highlands. This entomological survey was conducted to evaluate Anopheles diversity and host-seeking activity of Anopheles vectors in two communes with very low malaria transmission in Gia Lai Province.

Pathogenic fungi infection attributes of malarial vectors Anopheles maculipennis and Anopheles superpictus in central Iran

October 23, 2021 - 18:06 -- Open Access
Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi, Tahereh Sadat Asgarian, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat and Saeedeh Javar
Malaria Journal 2021 20:393, 9 October 2021

Due to the effect of synthetic and commercial insecticides on non-target organisms and the resistance of mosquitoes, non-chemical and environmentally friendly methods have become prevalent in recent years. The present study was to isolate entomopathogenic fungi with toxic effects on mosquitoes in natural larval habitats.

Proximity of Residence to Irrigation Determines Malaria Risk and Anopheles Abundance at an Irrigated Agroecosystem in Malawi

October 23, 2021 - 12:44 -- Open Access
Mangani C, Frake AN, Chipula G, Mkwaila W, Kakota T, Mambo I, Chingonda J, Mathanga D, Mzilahowa T, Zulu L, Walker E
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021 Oct 18:tpmd210390

As countries of sub-Saharan Africa expand irrigation to improve food security and foster economic growth, it is important to quantify the malaria risk associated with this process. Irrigated ecosystems can be associated with increased malaria risk, but this relationship is not fully understood. We studied this relationship at the Bwanje Valley Irrigation Scheme (800 hectares) in Malawi.

Contrasting effects of the alkaloid ricinine on the capacity of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii to transmit Plasmodium falciparum

September 23, 2021 - 09:22 -- Open Access
Hien DFDS, Paré PSL, Lefèvre T, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 15;14(1):479

Besides feeding on blood, females of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu lato readily feed on natural sources of plant sugars. The impact of toxic secondary phytochemicals contained in plant-derived sugars on mosquito physiology and the development of Plasmodium parasites remains elusive. The focus of this study was to explore the influence of the alkaloid ricinine, found in the nectar of the castor bean Ricinus communis, on the ability of mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium falciparum.

Microsporidia MB is found predominantly associated with Anopheles gambiae s.s and Anopheles coluzzii in Ghana

September 23, 2021 - 08:25 -- Open Access
Akorli J, Akorli EA, Tetteh SNA, Amlalo GK, Opoku M, Pwalia R, Adimazoya M, Atibilla D, Pi-Bansa S, Chabi J, Dadzie SK
Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 20;11(1):18658

A vertically transmitted microsporidian, Microsporidia MB, with the ability to disrupt Plasmodium development was reported in Anopheles arabiensis from Kenya, East Africa. To demonstrate its range of incidence, archived DNA samples from 7575 Anopheles mosquitoes collected from Ghana were screened. MB prevalence was observed at 1.8%. An. gambiae s.s constituted 87% of positive mosquitoes while the remaining were from An. coluzzii.

Complete mitogenomes of Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles nitidus and phylogenetic relationships within the genus Anopheles inferred from mitogenomes

September 8, 2021 - 17:09 -- Open Access
Guo J, Yan ZT, Fu WB, Yuan H, Li XD, Chen B
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Sep 6;14(1):452

Despite the medical importance of mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles in the transmission of malaria and other human diseases, its phylogenetic relationships are not settled, and the characteristics of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are not thoroughly understood.

NOT Open Access | Hemocyte RNA-Seq analysis of Indian malarial vectors Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies: from similarities to differences

July 6, 2021 - 13:32 -- NOT Open Access
Rani J, Chauhan C, Das De T, Kumari S, Sharma P, Tevatiya S, Patel K, Mishra AK, Pandey KC, Singh N, Dixit R
Gene. 2021 Jul 2:145810

Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies are dominant malarial vectors in urban and rural India, respectively. Both species carry significant biological differences in their behavioral adaptation and immunity, but the genetic basis of these variations are still poorly understood. Here, we uncovered the genetic differences of immune blood cells, that influence several immune-physiological responses. We generated, analyzed and compared the hemocyte RNA-Seq database of both mosquitoes. A total of 5,837,223,769 assembled bases collapsed into 7,595 and 3,791 transcripts, originating from hemocytes of laboratory-reared 3-4 days old naïve (sugar-fed) mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles culicifacies respectively.

Data-driven and interpretable machine-learning modeling to explore the fine-scale environmental determinants of malaria vectors biting rates in rural Burkina Faso

June 30, 2021 - 12:44 -- Open Access
Taconet P, Porciani A, Soma DD, Mouline K, Simard F, Koffi AA, Pennetier C, Dabiré RK, Mangeas M, Moiroux N
Parasit Vectors. 2021 Jun 29;14(1):345

Improving the knowledge and understanding of the environmental determinants of malaria vector abundance at fine spatiotemporal scales is essential to design locally tailored vector control intervention. This work is aimed at exploring the environmental tenets of human-biting activity in the main malaria vectors (Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles funestus) in the health district of Diébougou, rural Burkina Faso.

Genetic variation at the Cyp6m2 putative insecticide resistance locus in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii

May 26, 2021 - 09:31 -- Open Access
Martin G. Wagah, Petra Korlević, Christopher Clarkson, Alistair Miles, Mara K. N. Lawniczak and Alex Makunin
Malaria Journal 2021 20:234, 25 May 2021

The emergence of insecticide resistance is a major threat to malaria control programmes in Africa, with many different factors contributing to insecticide resistance in its vectors, Anopheles mosquitoes. CYP6M2 has previously been recognized as an important candidate in cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification in Anopheles. As it has been implicated in resistance against pyrethroids, organochlorines and carbamates, its broad metabolic activity makes it a potential agent in insecticide cross-resistance. Currently, allelic variation within the Cyp6m2 gene remains unknown.

Microbiota identified from preserved Anopheles

May 26, 2021 - 09:20 -- Open Access
Bianca E Silva, Zvifadzo Matsena Zingoni, Lizette L. Koekemoer and Yael L. Dahan-Moss
Malaria Journal 2021 20:230, 22 May 2021

Mosquito species from the Anopheles gambiae complex and the Anopheles funestus group are dominant African malaria vectors. Mosquito microbiota play vital roles in physiology and vector competence. Recent research has focused on investigating the mosquito microbiota, especially in wild populations. Wild mosquitoes are preserved and transported to a laboratory for analyses. Thus far, microbial characterization post-preservation has been investigated in only Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens. Investigating the efficacy of cost-effective preservatives has also been limited to AllProtect reagent, ethanol and nucleic acid preservation buffer. This study characterized the microbiota of African Anopheles vectors: Anopheles arabiensis (member of the An. gambiae complex) and An. funestus (member of the An. funestus group), preserved on silica desiccant and RNAlater® solution.


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