Pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides for the control of malaria transmitting Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and rapid increase in resistance to this insecticide class is of major concern. Pyrethroids target the Voltage Gated Sodium Channels (VGSCs), that have a key role in the normal function of the mosquitoes' nervous system. VGSC mutations L995F and L995S have long been associated with pyrethroid resistance and screening for their presence is routine in insecticide resistance management programs. Recently, a VGSC haplotype containing two amino acid substitutions associated with resistance in other species, V402L and I1527T, was identified. These two VGSC mutations are found in tight linkage and are mutually exclusive to the classical L995F/S mutations.
The threat to wildlife from chemical exposure exists regardless of the presence of conservation boundaries. An issue exacerbated by the use of environmentally persistent insecticides for vector control and long-range transport of legacy persistent organic pollutants. In this comparative study between two important conservation regions in South Africa, Kruger National Park (KNP) and Ndumo Game Reserve (NGR), we assessed organochlorine pesticide (OCP) accumulation in several anuran species collected from within the conservation regions.
Residual malaria transmission is the actual maintained inoculation of Plasmodium, in spite of a well-designed and implemented vector control programs, and is of great concern for malaria elimination. Residual malaria transmission occurs under several possible circumstances, among which the presence of exophilic vector species, such as Anopheles dirus, or indoor- and outdoor-biting vectors, such as Anopheles nili, or specific behavior, such as feeding on humans indoors, then resting or leaving the house the same night (such as Anopheles moucheti) or also changes in behavior induced by insecticides applied inside houses, such as the well-known deterrent effect of permethrin-treated nets or the irritant effect of DDT.
Chemical control has been the most efficient method in mosquito control, the development of insecticide resistance in target populations has a significant impact on vector control. The use of agricultural pesticides may have a profound impact on the development of resistance in the field populations of malaria vectors. Our study focused on insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) of Anopheles arabiensis populations from Northern Sudan, related to agricultural pesticide usage.
Entomological surveillance of local malaria vector populations is an important component of vector control and resistance management. In this study, the resistance profile and its possible mechanisms was characterised in a field population of the major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers state, in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Larvae collected in Port-Harcourt, were reared to adulthood and used for WHO bioassays. The population exhibited high resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT with mortalities of 6.7% ± 2.4, 37.5% ± 3.2 and 6.3% ± 4.1, respectively, but were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and malathion. Synergist bioassays with piperonylbutoxide (PBO) partially recovered susceptibility, with mortalities increasing to 53% ± 4, indicating probable role of CYP450s in permethrin resistance (χ2 = 29.48, P < 0.0001).
Anopheles sacharovi, a primer malaria vector species of Turkey, have a significant public health importance. It is aimed to determine the insecticide resistance status in Anopheles sacharovi populations in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. A total of 1638 individuals were analysed from 15 populations. Bioassay results indicated all An. sacharovi populations were resistant to DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur. Many populations have begun to have resistance against permethrin and deltamethrin.
Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquito, such as Anopheles funestus, is an important step in developing strategies to mitigate the resistance problem. This study aims to assess the role of the GSTe2 gene in DDT resistance and determine the genetic diversity of this gene in An. funestus.
Selection pressure from continued exposure to insecticides drives development of insecticide resistance and changes in resting behaviour of malaria vectors. There is need to understand how resistance drives changes in resting behaviour within vector species. The association between insecticide resistance and resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) in Northern Ghana was examined.
Understanding the mechanisms used by Anopheles mosquitoes to survive insecticide exposure is key to manage existing insecticide resistance and develop more suitable insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions as well as other alternative integrated tools. To this regard, the molecular basis of permethrin, DDT and dieldrin resistance in Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) at Akaka-Remo was investigated.
Obesity is a malnourishment epidemic worldwide. A meta-analysis of prospective human studies across the world demonstrated a consistent positive association between maternal exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and children with obesity. The present study evaluates the association of maternal exposure to DDT and DDE with the risk of obesity in daughters during their mid-life in a prospective birth cohort with up to 53 years of follow-up.