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In vivo functional validation of the V402L voltage gated sodium channel mutation in the malaria vector An. gambiae

December 1, 2021 - 20:19 -- Open Access
Williams J, Cowlishaw R, Sanou A, Ranson H, Grigoraki L
Pest Manag Sci. 2021 Nov 25

Pyrethroids are the most widely used insecticides for the control of malaria transmitting Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes and rapid increase in resistance to this insecticide class is of major concern. Pyrethroids target the Voltage Gated Sodium Channels (VGSCs), that have a key role in the normal function of the mosquitoes' nervous system. VGSC mutations L995F and L995S have long been associated with pyrethroid resistance and screening for their presence is routine in insecticide resistance management programs. Recently, a VGSC haplotype containing two amino acid substitutions associated with resistance in other species, V402L and I1527T, was identified. These two VGSC mutations are found in tight linkage and are mutually exclusive to the classical L995F/S mutations.

Not Open Access | Bioaccumulation of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides in amphibians from two conservation areas within malaria risk regions of South Africa

July 6, 2021 - 13:40 -- NOT Open Access
Wolmarans NJ, Bervoets L, Gerber R, Yohannes YB, Nakayama SM, Ikenaka Y, Ishizuka M, Meire P, Smit NJ, Wepener V
Chemosphere. 2021 Jul;274:129956

The threat to wildlife from chemical exposure exists regardless of the presence of conservation boundaries. An issue exacerbated by the use of environmentally persistent insecticides for vector control and long-range transport of legacy persistent organic pollutants. In this comparative study between two important conservation regions in South Africa, Kruger National Park (KNP) and Ndumo Game Reserve (NGR), we assessed organochlorine pesticide (OCP) accumulation in several anuran species collected from within the conservation regions.

Review of Issues on Residual Malaria Transmission

April 29, 2021 - 08:47 -- Open Access
Carnevale P, Manguin S
J Infect Dis. 2021 Apr 27;223(Supplement_2):S61-S80

Residual malaria transmission is the actual maintained inoculation of Plasmodium, in spite of a well-designed and implemented vector control programs, and is of great concern for malaria elimination. Residual malaria transmission occurs under several possible circumstances, among which the presence of exophilic vector species, such as Anopheles dirus, or indoor- and outdoor-biting vectors, such as Anopheles nili, or specific behavior, such as feeding on humans indoors, then resting or leaving the house the same night (such as Anopheles moucheti) or also changes in behavior induced by insecticides applied inside houses, such as the well-known deterrent effect of permethrin-treated nets or the irritant effect of DDT.

Status of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis and detection of the knockdown resistance mutation (kdr) concerning agricultural practices from Northern Sudan state, Sudan

March 30, 2021 - 14:26 -- Open Access
Korti MY, Ageep TB, Adam AI, Shitta KB, Hassan AA, Algadam AA, Baleela RM, Saad HA, Abuelmaali SA
J Genet Eng Biotechnol. 2021 Mar 29;19(1):49

Chemical control has been the most efficient method in mosquito control, the development of insecticide resistance in target populations has a significant impact on vector control. The use of agricultural pesticides may have a profound impact on the development of resistance in the field populations of malaria vectors. Our study focused on insecticide resistance and knockdown resistance (kdr) of Anopheles arabiensis populations from Northern Sudan, related to agricultural pesticide usage.

High pyrethroid/DDT resistance in major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Niger-Delta of Nigeria is probably driven by metabolic resistance mechanisms

March 17, 2021 - 09:34 -- Open Access
Muhammad A, Ibrahim SS, Mukhtar MM, Irving H, Abajue MC, Edith NMA, Da'u SS, Paine MJI, Wondji CS
PLoS One. 2021 Mar 11;16(3):e0247944

Entomological surveillance of local malaria vector populations is an important component of vector control and resistance management. In this study, the resistance profile and its possible mechanisms was characterised in a field population of the major malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii from Port Harcourt, the capital of Rivers state, in the Niger-Delta Region of Nigeria. Larvae collected in Port-Harcourt, were reared to adulthood and used for WHO bioassays. The population exhibited high resistance to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT with mortalities of 6.7% ± 2.4, 37.5% ± 3.2 and 6.3% ± 4.1, respectively, but were fully susceptible to bendiocarb and malathion. Synergist bioassays with piperonylbutoxide (PBO) partially recovered susceptibility, with mortalities increasing to 53% ± 4, indicating probable role of CYP450s in permethrin resistance (χ2 = 29.48, P < 0.0001).

NOT Open Access | The first implementation of allele-specific primers for detecting the knockdown and acetylcholinesterase target site mutations in malaria vector, Anopheles sacharovi

January 6, 2021 - 13:08 -- NOT Open Access
Yavaşoglu Sİ, Ülger C, Şimşek FM
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2021 Jan;171:104746

Anopheles sacharovi, a primer malaria vector species of Turkey, have a significant public health importance. It is aimed to determine the insecticide resistance status in Anopheles sacharovi populations in the Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. A total of 1638 individuals were analysed from 15 populations. Bioassay results indicated all An. sacharovi populations were resistant to DDT, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur. Many populations have begun to have resistance against permethrin and deltamethrin.

Investigation of DDT resistance mechanisms in Anopheles funestus populations from northern and southern Benin reveals a key role of the GSTe2 gene

December 23, 2020 - 09:53 -- Open Access
Genevieve M. Tchigossou, Seun M. Atoyebi, Romaric Akoton, Eric Tossou, Djegbe Innocent, Jacob Riveron, Helen Irving, Akadiri Yessoufou, Charles Wondji and Rousseau Djouaka
Malaria Journal 2020 19:456, 17 December 2020

Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquito, such as Anopheles funestus, is an important step in developing strategies to mitigate the resistance problem. This study aims to assess the role of the GSTe2 gene in DDT resistance and determine the genetic diversity of this gene in An. funestus.

Insecticide resistance in indoor and outdoor-resting Anopheles gambiae in Northern Ghana

September 1, 2020 - 10:24 -- Open Access
Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh, Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Davis Nwakanma, Umberto D’Alessandro, Gordon A. Awandare and Yaw A. Afrane
Malaria Journal 2020 19:314, 31 August 2020

Selection pressure from continued exposure to insecticides drives development of insecticide resistance and changes in resting behaviour of malaria vectors. There is need to understand how resistance drives changes in resting behaviour within vector species. The association between insecticide resistance and resting behaviour of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) in Northern Ghana was examined.

Investigating the molecular basis of multiple insecticide resistance in a major malaria vector Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) from Akaka-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

August 19, 2020 - 16:09 -- Open Access
Atoyebi SM, Tchigossou GM, Djouaka R, et al.
Parasit Vectors. 2020 Aug 18;13(1):423

Understanding the mechanisms used by Anopheles mosquitoes to survive insecticide exposure is key to manage existing insecticide resistance and develop more suitable insecticide-based malaria vector control interventions as well as other alternative integrated tools. To this regard, the molecular basis of permethrin, DDT and dieldrin resistance in Anopheles funestus (sensu stricto) at Akaka-Remo was investigated.

Association between maternal exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and risk of obesity in middle age

August 3, 2020 - 16:17 -- Open Access
La Merrill MA, Krigbaum NY, Cirillo PM, Cohn BA
Int J Obes (Lond). 2020 Aug; 44(8):1723-1732

Obesity is a malnourishment epidemic worldwide. A meta-analysis of prospective human studies across the world demonstrated a consistent positive association between maternal exposure to the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and children with obesity. The present study evaluates the association of maternal exposure to DDT and DDE with the risk of obesity in daughters during their mid-life in a prospective birth cohort with up to 53 years of follow-up.


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