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Not Open Access | Plasmodium vivax gametocytes and transmission

November 10, 2021 - 21:00 -- NOT Open Access
Bantuchai S, Imad H, Nguitragool W
Parasitol Int. 2021 Nov 5:102497

Malaria elimination means cessation of parasite transmission. At present, the declining malaria incidence in many countries has made elimination a feasible goal. Transmission control has thus been placed at the center of the national malaria control programs. The efficient transmission of Plasmodium vivax from humans to mosquitoes is a key factor that helps perpetuate malaria in endemic areas.

Hemozoin and Malaria : a love-hate affair

July 5, 2021 - 17:31 -- Pierre Lutgen

Mutaz Akkawi, Pascal Gisenya, Jérôme Munyangi, Pierre Lutgen

…or the key of malaria transmission.

Already 25 years ago it was known that malaria pigment (hemozoin, Hz, biocrystallized heme) is not an inert material. Crude pigment, as present in infected erythrocytes and shed after schizont rupture, may be considered the 'natural diet' ingested by macrophages in infected blood. Hemozoin is a powerful source of radicals, necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1 and 6.

NOT Open Access | Investigation of factors affecting the production of P. falciparum gametocytes in an Indian isolate

February 2, 2021 - 17:11 -- NOT Open Access
Wadi I, Deora N, Nath M, Sinha A
3 Biotech. 2021 Feb;11(2):55

The fundamental requirement of every gametocytocidal drug screening assay is the sufficient numbers of healthy and viable gametocytes. The number of in vitro gametocytes grossly depends on the genetic capacity of parasites to produce gametocytes and on various environmental factors that are not precisely elucidated. In the present study, we tested multiple environmental factors that are reported, hypothesized, or predicted to influence gametocyte numbers.

Pleiotropic roles of cold shock proteins with special emphasis on unexplored cold shock protein member of Plasmodium falciparum

October 27, 2020 - 15:56 -- Open Access
Ankita Behl, Vikash Kumar, Maxim Shevtsov and Shailja Singh
Malaria Journal 2020 19:382, 27 October 2020

The cold shock domain (CSD) forms the hallmark of the cold shock protein family that provides the characteristic feature of binding with nucleic acids. While much of the information is available on bacterial, plants and human cold shock proteins, their existence and functions in the malaria parasite remains undefined. In the present review, the available information on functions of well-characterized cold shock protein members in different organisms has been collected and an attempt was made to identify the presence and role of cold shock proteins in malaria parasite.

NOT Open Access | Lactic acid supplementation increases quantity and quality of gametocytes in Plasmodium falciparum culture

October 21, 2020 - 09:20 -- NOT Open Access
West R, Sullivan DJ
Infect Immun. 2020 Oct 19:IAI.00635-20

Malaria infection by Plasmodium falciparum continues to afflict millions of people worldwide, with transmission dependent upon mosquito ingestion of the parasite gametocyte stage. These sexually committed stages develop from the asexual stages, yet the factors behind this transition are not completely understood. Here we find that lactic acid increases gametocyte quantity and quality in P. falciparum culture.

Detection of remaining Plasmodium DNA and gametocytes during follow up after curative malaria treatment among returned travellers in Norway

August 19, 2020 - 16:07 -- Open Access
Christel Gill Haanshuus and Kristine Mørch
Malaria Journal 2020 19:296, 19 August 2020

PCR can be positive weeks after effective malaria treatment, potentially leading to over diagnose of recrudescence and re-infections. The DNA detected by PCR post-treatment might stem from residuals of destroyed asexual parasites, or from live gametocytes. The objective of this clinical observational study was to describe the presence of positive PCR for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in follow-up samples post-treatment from returned travellers, and the proportion of positive PCR due to gametocytes.

Assays for quantification of male and female gametocytes in human blood by qRT-PCR in the absence of pure sex-specific gametocyte standards

June 26, 2020 - 10:45 -- Open Access
Claire Y. T. Wang, Emma Ballard, Stacey Llewellyn, Louise Marquart, Teun Bousema, James S. McCarthy and Katharine A. Collins
Malaria Journal 2020 19:218, 23 June 2020

Malaria transmission from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes requires the presence of gametocytes in human peripheral circulation, and the dynamics of transmission are determined largely by the density and sex ratio of the gametocytes. Molecular methods are thus employed to measure gametocyte densities, particularly when assessing transmission epidemiology and the efficacy of transmission-blocking interventions. However, accurate quantification of male and female gametocytes with molecular methods requires pure male and female gametocytes as reference standards, which are not widely available.

Humoral immunity prevents clinical malaria during Plasmodium relapses without eliminating gametocytes

October 1, 2019 - 14:29 -- Open Access
Chester J. Joyner, Cristiana F. A. Brito, Mary R. Galinski, et al.
PLoS Pathog 15(9): e1007974

Plasmodium relapses are attributed to the activation of dormant liver-stage parasites and are responsible for a significant number of recurring malaria blood-stage infections.

Medical Condition: 

Artesunate causes recrudescence, Artemisia however kills gametocytes

February 16, 2016 - 11:03 -- Pierre Lutgen

A paper from Mali published last week is alarming (AA Djimbe et al., Parasite, 2016. 23, 3). Artesunate does not clear mature gametocytes during oral artesunate treatment and does not prevent the appearance of new gametocytes. This confirms to a large extent the randomized, double blind, large scale clinical trials of Munyanga and Idumbo in Maniema-Congo end of last year (see

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