Genotyping of the three Plasmodium falciparum polymorphic genes, msp1, msp2 and glurp, has been adopted as a standard strategy to distinguish recrudescence from new infection in drug efficacy clinical trials. However, the suitability of a particular gene is compromised in areas where its allelic variants distribution is significantly skewed, a phenomenon that might occur in isolated parasite populations or in areas of very low transmission. Moreover, observation of amplification bias has diminished the value of glurp as a marker.
Although malaria related cases and deaths have consistently declined over time, growing resistance to existing anti-malarial drugs in Plasmodium remains a matter of extreme concern. Since we rely so heavily on use of chemotherapy for malaria treatment and knowing that all the available anti-malarial drug will become virtually useless in the near future, we have to increase our understanding of basic biology of the parasite as well as characterize new molecular targets that can be exploited for anti-malarial therapy. In the present study, PfRUVBLs (AAA family member proteins) were evaluated for their potential as novel anti-malarial drug target candidates, using computational approaches.
Artemisinin resistance has emerged and spread in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), followed by artemisinin-based combination therapy failure, due to both artemisinin and partner drug resistance. More worrying, artemisinin resistance has been recently reported and confirmed in Rwanda. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen surveillance systems beyond the GMS to track the emergence or spread of artemisinin and partner drug resistance in other endemic settings. Currently, anti-malarial drug efficacy is monitored primarily through therapeutic efficacy studies (TES).
Artemisinin and its derivatives belong to a family of drugs approved for the treatment of malaria with known clinical safety and efficacy. In addition to its anti-malarial effect, artemisinin displays anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects in vivo and in vitro. Recently, much attention has been paid to the therapeutic role of artemisinin in liver diseases.
Poor access to health care providers was among the contributing factors to less prompt and ineffective malaria treatment. This limitation could cause severe diseases in remote areas. This study examined the sub-national disparities and predictors in accessing anti-malarial drug treatment among adults in Eastern Indonesia.
Malaria is a life-threatening infectious disease with an estimated 229 million cases in the year 2019 worldwide. Plasmodium falciparum 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PfDXR) is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of isoprenoid, (required for parasite growth and survival) and considered as an attractive target for designing anti-malarial drugs.
Anti-malarial drug resistance may be limited by decreased fitness in resistant parasites. Important contributors to resistance are mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum putative drug transporter PfMDR1.
Single Encounter Radical Cure and Prophylaxis (SERCAP) describes an ideal anti-malarial drug that cures all malaria in a single dose. This target product profile has dominated anti-malarial drug discovery and development over the past decade.
Malaria is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Guinea. The entire country is considered at risk of the disease. Transmission occurs all year round with peaks occurring from July through October with Plasmodium falciparum as the primary parasite species. Chloroquine (CQ) was the first-line drug against uncomplicated P. falciparum in Guinea until 2005, prior to the adoption of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT).
Malaria is a major public health problem in India and accounts for about 88% of malaria burden in South-East Asia. India alone accounted for 2% of total malaria cases globally. Anti-malarial drug resistance is one of the major problems for malaria control and elimination programme. Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is the first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum in north eastern states of India since 2013 after confirming the resistance against sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. In the present study, therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine and k13 polymorphism was assessed in uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.