In the Democratic Republic of East Timor, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria coexist, but limited information is available about the latter species. Consequently, the prevalence of P. vivax and of its corresponding antifolate resistance-associated mutations in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes was assessed here.
Malaria has had a greater impact on world history than any other infectious disease. More than 300 to 500 million individuals worldwide are infected with Plasmodium spp, and 1.5 to 2.7 million people a year, most of whom are children, die from the infection.
A fixed-dose pediatric formulation of artesunate and mefloquine (Artequin Pediatric) has been developed. In this open, non-comparative study in Cameroonian children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, the safety and efficacy of this formulation was tested, with a particular emphasis on the risk of neuropsychiatric adverse events (AEs). In total, 220 subjects, weighing between 10 and 20 kg, were enrolled; 213 qualified for analysis.
The new endoperoxyketal polyketides manadoperoxides A−D (2−5) have been isolated from the Indonesian sponge Plakortis cfr. simplex and their stereostructures established by means of spectroscopic data and semisynthetic transformations.
The study results indicate that ParascreenTM is not a valid and acceptable test for malaria diagnosis under the field conditions found in the Peruvian Amazon.
Flow cytometry based assays using GFP-fluorescent parasites proved sensitive and highly reproducible for quantifying the growth-inhibitory activity of antibodies and anti-malarials, with superior reproducibility to light microscopy, and are suitable for high-throughput applications.
A rational use of ACT requires laboratory testing of all patients presenting with presumed malaria. Use of RDTs inevitably has incremental costs, but the strategy associating RDT use for all clinically suspected malaria and prescribing ACT only to patients tested positive is cost-effective in areas where microscopy is unavailable.
Apicomplexan parasites are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a variety of hosts, causing significant diseases in livestock and humans. The invasive forms of the parasites invade their host cells by gliding motility, an active process driven by parasite adhesion proteins and molecular motors.
All P falciparum isolates tested, and parasites using different invasion pathways were inhibited to comparable levels. Furthermore, it was not possible to select for heparin-resistant parasites. Heparin-like molecules occur naturally on the surface of human erythrocytes, where they may act as receptors for binding of merozoite surface proteins.
Infants with HbAS were protected from uncomplicated malaria (P < .005) and anemia (P < .001), had lower age-adjusted parasite densities (P < .001), and higher age-adjusted hemoglobin levels compared with children with the HbAA genotype (P = .004).